The Nature and Nurture of Behavior

JonBenet Parotti and Jasmine Lytle

Twin studies

Identical twins - Are twins who developed from a single fertilized egg that splits into two, and are genetically identical.
  • There are identical twins in this world that has been separated at birth and then years later unexpectedly met there twin. Shockingly they have a lot of similar qualities that was not a biological factor. It was more of a environmental thing.
  • For example a mad scientist split up identical twins at birth then rear them in different types of environmental settings. They grew up with a different type of lifestyles, including health wise. despite 38 years of being separated there virtually alike.
Fraternal twins- twins who develop from separate eggs. They are no closer then brother and sister but share a fetal environment (womb mates)
Identical Twins Separated at Birth

Adoptive studies

  • Adoptees' traits bear more similarities to their biological parents then their caregiving adoptive parents.
  • Some adopted children act differently according to their environmental influences.
  • Although the adopted children do not resemble their adopted parents the parents still influences the child attitudes, values, and morals.
  • 7 in 8 report feeling strongly attached to one or more adopted parent becoming more happier and more stable in that family

Cultural influences on development

Culture- the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
  • we differ from other cultures in things such as: our language , our sports, what side of the road we drive on and many other things.
  • But we also have a huge similarity our capacity for culture.
  • Within all cultures we exchange money for things, to eat, to play and so on.
  • We differ in cultures also by how we raise our children and bury our dead.
Norms- an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior " proper" behavior
  • many south Asians and the British have norms
  • For example south Asians only eat with their right hand fingers. The British have a norm for how they stand in a lines
personal space- the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
  • Different cultures react differently to personal space. In some places the people there prefer more personal space then others.

Gender issues/ Gender rules

Aggression- physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
  • Men have more aggression then woman as the result of a survey taken on males and females. An experiment taken conformed that men behave more aggressively the woman.
Gender and Social Power-
  • Around the world people perceive men as more dominant, forceful, and independent.
  • women as more deferential, nurturant, and affiliative.
The Nature of Gender-
  • from your mother you receive an X chromosome and from your father either an X chromosome making you a girl or a Y chromosome making you a boy.
  • the X chromosome is found in both male and female
  • the Y chromosome is found only in males
  • the Y chromosome includes a single gene that throws a master switch triggering the testes to produce the principle male hormone testosterone
Testosterone- the most important of the male sex. both male and female have it, but the additional testosterone in male stimulate the growth of the male sex organs.

Peer Influences on development

  • At all ages we seek to establish ourselves and be accepted in society. Children have a significant influence on their everyday behaviors in order to fit in.
  • diets, accents and habits can a be altered in order to feel accepted in the society that a person may be in.
  • Although parents are important role models, beyond their control peers are very influential in changing a person attitudes and interactions with people, and wanting popularity