Techniques to Encourage Engagement
Allowing Sufficient Wait Time
There are several pros to allowing students have time to come up with an answer. First off, it allows students more time to process the information, which is needed for ESL students, as well as formulate an answer. Allowing students to formulate an answer also allows the creation of well thought answers. There are some cons to this method. Most people involved don't feel comfortable with the silence that often accompanies the wait time. Teachers usually chime in to fill in what they were looking for and students may get bored and cause issues by the lack of things going on.
Proper Grouping Configurations
By switching between teacher instruction and various grouping instructions allows for a more thorough level of understanding of material. Students get more opportunities to learn new information, discuss it, and process it. Having students work together allows them to see information in a new light, but it comes with it's own kinds of problems. When grouping students based on ability, students who are not in the higher level groups can suffer serious consequences. Also, teachers tend to hold the higher level groups to higher expectations compared to the low-achieving groups. It is important to know when and where to use grouping techniques as well as how to put the groups together to promote active interactions.
Opportunities to Clarify Key Concepts in L1
Allowing students to clarify concepts in their first language provides a safe way for engagement. It allows students to clearly verify what they are learning through an aide, peer, or some form of text in their first language. Some skills that are learned through their L1 transfer over to their second language. This allows students to feel more comfortable in their work since they are receiving clear instructions in their L1. There is problems in this such as controversy with using the L1 in instructional purposes. Overall, this should increase engagement for those students who are not that efficient yet, by providing instruction they can understand to participate.