social advancement in the 1970's

Chapter 32

Women's Rights

  • the women's rights movement was revived by author Betty Friedan's book, The Feminime Mystique, which inspired women all over the country to examine their own lives
  • seeking change, many women demanded increased oppurtunities and fair treatment in the workplace
  • the Equal Pay Act, Title VII, and the Education Amendments Act were three important steps towards equality in the workplace and in education

National Organization of Women

  • this organization tried to influence elected officials to ensure social and economic equality for women
  • they claimed almost 1,000 members just within their first year of existence

Feminist Movement

  • many female social activists began standing up for their own rights
  • numerous small women's groups sprang up nationwide; some held discussion sessions, while others took more direct and controversial actions
  • journalist Gloria Steinem was a notable feminist who founded the National Women's Political Caucus to encourage women to run for political office

opposition to the women's movement

  • many believed that the movement primarily served wealthy white women and ignored nonwhite and/or working-class women
  • middle-class women saw it as a threat to traditional family life

nfwa and cesar chavez

  • Cesar Chavez founded a union called the National Farm Workers Association to organize migrant agricultural workers
  • Chavez believed that nonviolence was the best way to bring about social change
  • the notable events of his union included, joining the Filipino agricultural strikers and marching 300 miles to Sacramento to encourage public sympathy

united farm workers

  • the NFWA combined with another union to create the United Farm Workers
  • they fought poor working conditions with boycotts
  • it was not exclusively a Mexican American organization and included many non-Hispanic members but it accomplishments inspired many Mexican Americans to fight discrimination

alianza federal de mercedes

  • translated as: "Federal Alliance of Land Grants"
  • this organization worked to regain land that had been taken from the Mexican Americans over the years

mexican american youth organization

  • formed by a group of students at St. Mary's University in San Antonio
  • the founder, Jose Angel Gutierrez, was inspired by a 1966 farmworkers' protest march
  • the group takes radical positions on issues affecting Mexican Americans
  • they inspired nearly 100 Mexican American students and their parents to protest and take their demands to the school board

la raza unida party

  • was formed by Gutierrez after Mexican American leaders had been discussing the possibility of creating a Chicano political party
  • although started in Texas, the RUP later expanded into Colorado, Arizona, Nebraska, and New Mexico
  • it was transformed from a collection of regional parties into a strong national organization, led by president Gutierrez

american indian movement

  • this movement became the major force behind the Red Power movement
  • it called for a renewal of American Indian culture and recognition of American Indians' rights
  • AIM members conducted a protest called the Trail of Broken Treaties in which they occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs and seized the trading post at Wounded Knee
  • they wanted the government to initiate hearings on past broken treaties and investigate alleged BIA misconduct

american association of retired people

  • the largest group dedicated to lobbying for the needs of older citizens
  • they sought to eliminate mandatory retirement
  • many retired Americans joined social clubs and often discussed political and legal issues affecting older adults

education for all handicapped children act

  • requires public schools to provide education for children with physical or mental disabilities
  • was passed due to the great amount of Americans fighting to seek recongition and protection of civil rights for people with disabilities

childrens defense funds

  • leading children's rights organization
  • their purpose is to "identify, publicize, and correct" serious problems that American children are facing
  • they have focused on helping poor and minority children as well as seeking health insurance for children and federally funded child care


  • created by Americans hoping to create a new order by rejecting everything connected to mainstream America
  • many students dropped out of school, rejecting materialism in favor of simplicity and "doing your own thing"
  • hippies dressed in casual/colorful clothing (tie-dye, beads, cultural pieces, etc)

sound of the 1960's

  • british invasion (the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, etc)
  • use of electrically amplified instruments (electric guitar, etc)
  • rebirth of folk music (Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, etc)
  • motown and soul (the Temptations, James Brown, Aretha Franklin, etc)


  • this event marked both the height and the beginning of the end for the counterculture movement
  • more than just a rock concert, this three-day, peace-filled festival of 400,00 young people celebrated an era

3 events that i feel defined social advancement in the 1970's

  1. The Women's Movement: Despite opposition and mixed success, women had made numerous gains by the end of the 1970s. More female politicians took office in Congress, more women held professional jobs, sexual discrimination became outlawed, and all-male-colleges allowed women to enroll.
  2. Woodstock: This event celebrated the height of the counterculture movement and symbolized the beginning of the end of its era along with a change in direction and social advancement all while remaining peaceful.
  3. The involvement of the Mexican American Youth Organization: Although just a small group of students, their determination helped fight Mexican American discrimination and get the federal Justice Department to require their school board to meet their demands, such as including bilingual and bicultural education.