Protect Your Teen

Parenting styles have an impact on teen's substance abuse.

The European study


Mr. Amador Calafat, Fernando García, Montse Juan, Elisardo Becoña, and José Ramón Fernández-Hermida did a study in Europe to see if parenting styles had any effect in teen’s substance abuse. The study was done in 78 different schools in Sweden, United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, and Czech Republic.


Substances include: Alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs, and marijuana.


The study was done with 7,718 adolescents, of these teens 3,774 were boys and 3,944 were girls. 2,364 were 13 years old or younger, 2,610 were 14-15 years old, and 2,744 were 16 years or older.


The study concluded that adolescents with authoritative parents (warm and strict) use less illegal drugs, are more able to recover quickly from difficult conditions, have better academic performances, and are less involved in behavioral problems.


Children with authoritarian parents are high in the aspects of authoritative kids but low on neglectful. Meaning they have better academic performances but tend to abuse substances.


Children with permissive or indulgent parents (warm but not strict) have higher frequencies of substance abuse, behavior problems, and have low performance in school.


Children with neglectful parents (neither warm nor strict) perform worse in all the outcomes mentioned above. They tend to use illegal drugs and do very badly in school.


Of the 7,718 adolescents 2,210 had authoritative parents, 1,664 had authoritarian parents, 1,700 had indulgent parents, and 2,144 had neglectful parents.

There are four styles of parenting:

Authoritative

Authoritarian

Permissive or Indulgent

Neglectful

Authoritative Parenting

Authoritative parents are characterized by being warm and strict. These parents are warm, attentive, and sensitive to their child's needs. They have a very close parent-child relationship. Authoritative parents are also strict and they have control over their child.

Teens with authoritative parents will have self-control, cooperate in activities, high self-esteem, and they will do well in school.

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Authoritarian Parenting

Authoritarian parents are strict not warm at all. These parents appear to be cold and rejecting towards their teens. They tend to yell a lot, command, criticize, and threaten their children. They expect their child to do as they say without question and if they resist the parent will act with force and punishment.

Teens with authoritarian parents are anxious, unhappy, and have really low self-esteem. They will act hostile and use force when they are mad or do not get their way, they are acting like their parents would.

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Permissive or Indulgent Parenting

Permissive parents are warm and accepting but not strict. These parents have little to no control over their child. They are I attentive with their teen. They allow their child to make their own decisions on anything when they are not capable of doing so yet. This means they can go to bed whenever they like and do anything they want whenever they want.

Teens with permissive parents are impulsive, disobedient, and rebellious. These teens rely in adults to do things they want. They are overly demanding and because of this they will do poor in school work for not doing their work and have antisocial behavior.

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Neglectful Parenting

Neglectful parents are neither warm nor strict. Often these parents have so much going on in life that they are depressed and stressed that they have to time for their child. This is basically child maltreatment hence neglect.

Teens with neglectful parents will have many developmental problems especially if it has been going on early in the child's life. Teens will display poor school achievement, antisocial behavior, and poor self-esteem.

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Don't know your parenting style?

Below is a link to a questionnaire for parents so they can find out how they are parenting their child. At the end of the questionnaire parents are to add up the number of the question asked and see in what range it falls under.

Work Cite


Calafat, A., García, F., Juan, M., Becoña, E., & Fernández-Hermida, J. R. (2014). Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 138185-192. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.02.705