Musicals

Music AS

Empty Chairs at Empty Tables

  • Marius - solo; baritone (in between tenor and bass)
  • simple accompaniment; accordion sound, guitar, strings - builds with piece; reeds + drum kit
  • 62 bars long


Structure


  • 32-bar song form:

2 bar intro / A1 / A2 / B / A3 / A4 / A5 / 4 bar outro



(A = 8 bars long + B = 16 bars long)


Tonality


  • A minor
  • A SECTIONS - harmonically unadventurous (chords I/IV/V and relative major) - expressive 9ths in harmony (dissonant) - quickest harmonic rhythm: 1 chord p/b
  • B SECTION - harmonically more adventurous - explores relative major (C major) - back to Am for A3 section - quickest harmonic rhythm: 2 chords p/b; greater sense of tonal variety
  • modulates to C# minor in A4 - modulates to relative minor (E major) - use of false relation in vocal part (C -> C#)

Harmony


  • accompaniment - expressive use of broken chords with added 9ths - passion
  • perfect cadences at the end of A sections; 'friends are dead and gone'
  • half-diminished 7th chord - extended chord - extended perfect cadence

Rhythm


  • 4/4 time signature
  • Andante tempo
  • A5 - expressive pause on top E - rall. - expression
  • consistent use of quavers + reversed dotted rhythms - appoggiature - 'Oh my friends, my friends, for-GIVE me'

Textures


  • melody + accompaniment in A sections - use of counter melody (flute/cor anglais)
  • orchestral parts - increasingly independent (B section)
  • 'on the lonely barricade at dawn' - bass + quaver movement stops; opening broken chords accompaniment can restart at A3 and emphasizes text - monophonic texture reflects Marius' loneliness; solitary note
  • A4 - almost all quaver movement with counter melody; 'phantom faces at the window'

Melody


  • A SECTIONS - conjunct + descend through a 5th
  • B SECTION - conjunct but includes some disjunct moments; 'I can hear them now' - compound major 2nd
  • top note = G (above middle C)
  • bottom note = A
  • based on motifs/leitmotifs - 'there's a grief that can't be spoken' is repeated a tone lower for 'empty chairs at empty tables'

Context


  • prayer-like quality
  • song occurs near the end of the musical

Something's Coming

Instruments (30)


  • WOODWIND - 5 players: clarinet/saxaphone (doubling up)
  • BRASS - 2 horns, 2 trombones, 3 trumpets
  • PERCUSSION - 2 percussionists, piano, drum kit
  • STRINGS - 7 violins, 4 cellos, 2 double basses, acoustic/electric guitar (doubling up)
Structure


  • avoids verse-chorus form
  • sections made recognisable by: melodic hooks + rhythmic accompaniments
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Harmony + Tonality


  • D major with 2 distinct sections in C major (B/B1)
  • blues notes - #4th + b7th - jazz inspired
  • vocal melody ends on C natural (accompaniment in D major)
  • use of #4th - tritone interval - represents devil (underlying problems in story)
  • tonal BUT added chromatic notes


Texture


  • layered textures - contrapuntal in A sections
  • accompaniment - on-beat bass with syncopated chords (especially in 2/4 sections)
  • vocal line - often syncopated - short, fragmented melodic ideas + contrasting, long sustained notes
  • triplets - create cross-rhythms - rhythmic excitement + variety
  • Latin-American rhythm - reflect background of Puerto Rican gang


Melody


  • short, repeated riffs
  • contrast between short, snappy phrases and long, sustained notes
  • push notes - anticipate beat (e.g. start of vocal phrases)
  • challenging intervals in melodic line - tritone + blues notes

CABARET

Instruments


V. LARGE ENSEMBLE:


Pit Band:


  • Reed 1 (Piccolo, Flute, Eb and Bb Clarinet, Soprano and Alto Sax)
  • Reed 2 (Piccolo, Flute, Clarinet, Alto Sax)
  • Reed 3 (Cor Anglais, Oboe, Bb Clarinet, Tenor Sax)
  • Reed 4 (Bb Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Bassoon, Baritone Sax)
  • Horn
  • Trumpets I and II - often muted
  • Trombone I and II
  • Accordian, Guitar, Banjo
  • Percussion (including drum kit, timpani and xylophone)
  • Violin I and II, Viola, Cello, Double Bass
  • Piano (and conductor)


On stage band:


  • Piano
  • Drum kit
  • Trombone
  • Tenor Sax
Structure


  • Ternary form
  • 32 bar song form:
Big image
  • interesting structure - repetition with sufficient contrast
  • verse chorus form is avoided - A1/A2 ('what good is sitting') as verses and B ('Life is a cabaret') as a chorus
Harmony and Tonality


  • A minor (intro) --> A major (A1 section)
  • am(9#13) chord (b.1) - bass line outlines tonic-dominant then changes to tritone interval (b.2) in the bass and a French Augmented 6th chord built on Bb (Bb, D, E and G#)
  • modulation in final A1/A2 sections UP a semitone to Bb major - excitement
  • chromatic, jazz-like harmony throughout - chromatic inflections --> frequent use of extended chords (6ths, 7ths 9ths) and chromatic melodic lines
  • perfect cadences used (e.g. codetta into A1 section (E7 -> A) - decorated with harmonic extensions
  • codetta - feeling of C#m (V7-1 cadence - 'I think of Elsie to this very day') - ends on E major 7 chord - allowing perfect cadence to A major (beginning of A section)









Texture


  • melody with accompaniment (alternating bass-treble ragtime style)
  • codetta (central B section) - sustained chords + piano chordal arpeggios --> expressive - death (contrasting to jovial nature of rest of song)
  • second A section - string pizzicato + staccato chords - light/delicate texture - gradual thickening - towards modulation to Bb major
  • octaves + countermelodies added to thicken to a more contrapuntal texture
  • Central B section - solo voice - imitated by orchestra (e.g. 'rented by the hour') - 'hour' imitated up the octave
Rhythm and Metre


  • common duple time (2/2)
  • tempo changes - characterization (e.g. codetta - middle B section) - music here is slower in 4/4
  • opening 8 bar introduction - leitmotif for Sally Bowles
  • gradual accelerando - A2 section (Bb major) - fantastic finale
  • frequent syncopation - in between vocal phrases (orchestra) (e.g. b.12 - muted brass plays syncopated chords) - interest + fills gaps in phrasing
Melody


  • vocal lines - conjunct/triadic (especially A1 and A2) BUT some disjunct moments (e.g. jump of minor 7th on 'Come to the Cabaret') - chromatic inflection (E#) to move towards F#minor 'sitting alone'
  • central B section - more sequential (e.g. 'Come Taste the Wine') - outlines interval of a 6th then a 5th - repetition
  • ending, in Bb - elaborated/improvised - virtuosity of performer
  • orchestral parts - accompaniment (develop own countermelodies) e.g. trumpet - harmonic mute (at key change to Bb major)
  • orchestra - small melodic interjections (between vocal phrases) - syncopated, staccato and muted


Fugue for Tinhorns


  • 3 part vocal round (Nicely-Nicely, Benny and Rusty - orchestral accompaniment
  • first vocal piece of musical - sets scene








Instruments


  • 2 violins
  • 3 reeds (sax/clarinet doubled up)
  • horn
  • trombone
  • 2 trumpets
  • drums/percussion
  • double bass
  • keyboard

Structure


  • round - based on 12 bar melodic line
  • repeated 3 times by each character
  • Intro (5 bars) - trumpet hunting call
  • Coda (8 bars)
  • Nicely Nicely - solo before round begins with Benny + Rusty - audience can familiarise themselves with the melodic idea
Tonality


  • Db major (5 flats)
  • no modulation in the round
  • moves to Bb minor (relative minor) in coda BUT ends in Db major (tonic)
  • use of extended chords (e.g. 4#) - jazzy, harmonic feel
Harmony


  • mostly diatonical functional harmony - use of tonic/dominant/secondary dominant chord progressions
  • accompaniment uses harmonic progression I-V-VofV-V (Db-Ab-Eb-Ab) as a 2 bar repeated ostinato
  • perfect cadences - often extended (7th/9th)
  • chromatic inflections - especially in first 4 bars --> harmonic interest
  • use of 4#th - jazz-inspired harmony ('I got the horse right here')

Rhythm


  • duple time (2/2)
  • oom - pah accompaniment (on beat bass + off beat chordal accompaniment) - forms harmonic 2 bar ostinato
  • subtle use of syncopation (in vocal lines) e.g. upward resolving appoggiatura on 'I got the horse right here' - use of #4 (D natural) + helps to give a jazzy feel to the piece



Textures


  • melody + accompaniment - made increasingly complex (layering)
  • dense texture when ALL 3 voices are singing the main idea (bar 26)
  • use of homophony in the coda (NOT counterpoint) - starts with a unison of all 3 passages ('I got the horse')
Melody


  • 12 bar round subject:
- b.1 - 4 use syncopation + chromatic inflections (especially 4# in upward resolving appoggiatura 'I got the horse right here'

- b.5 - 12 simpler - diatonic with less rhythmic interest + based around a sequential descending pattern - interval of a 5th ('Can do')

  • orchestral dissonant chord - ends round/starts coda

Marry the Man Today

  • duet between 2 soprano lead singers (Adelaide + Sarah Brown)
  • very end of song - finale
  • wraps up central themes of the musical
Instruments


  • 2 violins
  • 3 reeds (sax/clarinet doubled up)
  • horn
  • trombone
  • 2 trumpets
  • drums/percussion
  • double bass
  • keyboard
Structure


  • no set structure - unequal sections
  • Intro: 'At Wanamaker's and Sak's and Klein's'
  • A section: 'Marry the Man Today' (13 bars)
  • B section: 'Slowly introduce him to better things'
  • the introduction sets the scene for the remainder of the song (both characters will marry respective men at the same time)
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Harmony and Tonality


INTRO

  • Eb major but cadences avoided in this key (suggest Ab major)
  • jazz inspired harmony - use of #9th chords ('you simply got to gamble') and extensions
  • moves to Gb major (flattened mediant key) - sense of harmonic venture

A SECTIONS

  • relative minor -> C minor
  • use of tonic/dominant harmony

B SECTIONS

  • G major (dominant of C minor)
  • chromatic descending bass line ('Readers Digest')
  • ends on E major chords - unexpected harmonic shift - instantly returns to C minor in the repeated A section - non-functional harmony

Rhythm


  • 6/8 time signature (compound time for Intro)
  • 4/4/ for A and B section
  • triplets + dotted rhythms - distinctive character
  • quasi-glissando (accompaniment to A sections) - outlining tonic-dominant bass line - chromatic + comic character



Textures


  • melody + accompaniment throughout (band harmonise melody - extended chords)
  • A sections use characteristic oom-pah accompaniment
Melody


  • conjunct with small leaps (e.g. 3rds) + chromatic inflections (e.g. 'at any vegetable market')
  • A sections - based entirely on upward scale patterns + then reversed to downward scale patterns - sense of balance
  • use of imitation in vocal (e.g. intro)
  • Adelaide sings 'Marry the Man Today' 2 beats after Sarah - both characters thinking the same thing at almost the same time
  • 'Marry the Man Today' sung in unison at the end - both characters = same conclusion
  • chromatic bass line - 'have a pot roast' - gives interest