Marbury vs. Madison
Year of the case: 1803
Summary of the case: What happened is Marbury sued Madison for not giving him the expected job. It was expected because Chef Justice John Marshall left his job. He moved to Chef Justice from Secretary of the State.
Constitutional principal: They got Judicial Review.
Significance: Chef Justice John Marshall made check and balance called Judicial Review.
Fletcher vs. Peck
Martin vs. Hunter's Lesse
Year of the case: 1816
Summary of the case: State of Virginia enacted legislation during the Revolutionary War that gave the State the power to confiscate the property of British Loyalists. Hunter was given a grant of land by the State. Denny Martin held the land under devise from Lord Thomas Fairfax. The trial court found in favor of Martin and the court of appeals. The Supreme Court of the U.S reversed in favor of Martin, holding that the treaty with England superseded the state statute, and remanded the case to the Virginia court of appeals to enter judgment for Martin.
Constitutional principal: The U.S. Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction over state court decisions involving federal law.
Significance: The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction over state court decisions involving federal law.
Cohens vs. Virginia
Year of the case: 1829
Summary of the case: Act of Congress authorized the operation of a lottery in the District of Columbia. The Cohen brothers proceeded to sell D.C. lottery tickets in the state of Virginia, violating state law. State authorities tried and convicted the Cohens, and then declared themselves to be the final arbiters of disputes between the states and the national government.
Constitutional principal: The Court held that the Supreme Court had jurisdiction to review state criminal proceedings.
Significance: Court held that the Supreme Court had jurisdiction to review state criminal proceedings.