States of Matter!
Matter is anything that takes up space and anything we can touch or see. Ice cream, water and oxygen are all matter. We weigh matter with mass and volume. Mass is how much there is in a object. Volume is the amount of space there is in a object.
States of Matter
There are 5 states of matter in total: solids, liquids, gases, plasma and Bose- Einstein condensates (BEC). The particles of a solid are tightly packed and have low kinetic energy, the atoms are fixed in their position. Liquids have more kinetic energy than a solid, the particles in a liquid have room to spread around so the don't have a shape that stays. With high kinetic energy, and particles that are far away from each other, gases will expand to fill their container. A gas is invisible. Plasma has particles which move a lot with very high kinetic energy. In Be Condensates, there is almost 0 kinetic energy and the atoms come together to make a big atom.
The picture above shows how the particles act depending on their state.
Changes of Matter
There are 8 (or more) changes of matter. Melting and freezing happen between a solid and liquid. An example could be when you put water in a freezer it freezes and when you put water in the hot sun, it'll melt. Vaporization is when a liquid turns into a gas by heat, like when your water is broiling and a gas starts to form. Condensation, on the other hand, is when water vapor turns into a liquid and usually happens when warm air rises, cools down and loses its capacity. When a gas turns into a solid, it is called deposition. Have you ever seen a solid turn straight into a gas? This is called sublimation. Sublimation can happen with dry ice, if you leave dry ice in a room, it will turn into a gas. From a gas to a plasma, you have to ionize and get rid of electrons from your atoms. Plasma to gas, you have to push energy from the gas.
Physical and Chemical Changes!
There are 2 types of changes, a physical change and a chemical change. A physical change is when the object looks or feels different but it is still the same thing. For example when you freeze water it is still H2O but it looks and feels different. That is a reversible change, you can freeze the water and melt it on and on.On the other hand, a chemical change is when you take a object and change it all and get something different. For example, you burn wood, you get ashes, carbon dioxide,etc. That would be a irreversible change because you cannot change ashes, etc. to wood and burn it on and on. That is not possible.