What is the 8th Amendment?
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
What is the historical background?
It is actually predicted on the Old testament "Eye for Eye" principle.
This is the amendment in my own words.
People shouldn't spend the whole life in jail just for stealing food. They shouldn't get a death sentence for anything like that.
Buck v. Bell, 1927 Court Case
Constitution, the government would not be able to resist using its power to violate those freedoms.
Courts's decision and its rationale
When the states ratified the Bill of Rights, they all had laws imposing the death penalty for murder and other capital crimes.