Peru

By: Dawn Conner

Some facts about Peru

Peru is a South America country. Home of two rain forests. The Amazon and Machu Picchu.

Peru is an ancient city to the Incas.Peru's capital is Lima

Peru in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiversecountry with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountainsvertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.[6]

presentative

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Indexscore and a poverty level around 25.8 percent.[7] Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

Peru's Flag

Peru's Seal

Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence, the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) of western South America. It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. TheAndes mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically. The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán.[52] The third region is the selva(jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60 percent of the country's area is located within this region.[53]
The economy of Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank[60] and is the 39th largest in the world.[61] Peru is, as of 2011, one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to the economic boom experienced during the 2000s.[62] It has a high Human Development Index of .752 based on 2011 data. Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.[63] Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitariandistribution of income have proven elusive.[64] According to 2010 data, 31.3% of its total population is poor, including 9.8% that lives in extreme poverty.[65] Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose; as of 2014 it stands at 2.5%.[66] The unemployment rate has fallen steadily in recent years, and as of 2012 stands at 3.6%.

With about 29.5 million inhabitants, Peru is the fifth most populous country in South America.[78] Its demographic growth rate declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; population is expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050.[79] As of 2007, 75.9% lived in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas.[80] Major cities include the Lima Metropolitan Area (home to over 9.8 million people), Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Cusco, Chimbote, and Huancayo; all reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census.[81] There are 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru.[82]

According to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Peru's official languages are Spanish and Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages in areas where they predominate. Spanish is spoken by 84.1% of the population and Quechua by 13%, while other languages make up the remaining 2.9%.[61]

In the 2007 census, 81.3% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, 12.5% as Evangelical, 3.3% as of other denominations such as Protestantism,Judaism, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and Jehovah's Witness, and 2.9% as non-religious.[84] Literacy was estimated at 92.9% in 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%).[85] Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools.[61][86]

Amerindian religious traditions also play a major role in the beliefs of Peruvians. Catholic festivities like Corpus Christi, holy week and Christmas sometimes blend with Amerindian traditions. Amerindian festivities which were celebrated since pre-Columbian times are also widespread throughout the nation. Inti Raymi, which is an old Inca festival, is still celebrated.

The majority of towns, cities and villages have their own official church or cathedral and patron saint.