The War of 1812

By: Mikki Fox

Essential Idea

The War of 1812 helped the United States gain power as its own Country. While also filling the people with national pride.

The Four Causes of the War

First Cause: Impressment

Britain and France had went to war again in 1803, both wanting to America on their side. The current president, Thomas Jefferson, tried followed Washington's words to stay neutral. This did not please neither of the countries at war, causing British to capture ships and kidnap sailors. This lead to the Chesapeake Affair in 1807, which was when a British warship tried capturing the Chesapeake, an American warship. The Chesapeake tried to fight back but the British ended up kidnapping sailors. After hear about the affair most Americans were furious and wanted to go to war.

Second Cause: Economic Problems: Embargo of 1807

Still trying to avoid war, Jefferson proposed an embargo. An embargo is an official ban of trading with a specific country. This act completely stopped all trade with Europe which effected America in both a good and bad way. Although it did keep American ships safe and avoided war, it killed the American economy. A short year later a Democratic-Republican, James Madison, was elected as the fourth president. He enforced the Non-Intercourse Act which started trade back up with Europe excluding Britain and France. Even after this act the Economy was still suffering and Americans still wanted war.

Third Cause: "War Hawks"

In 1810 new congressmen from the south and west were elected. These men were known as "War Hawks", which are men who want war. Both people from the south and west were angry at Britain for different reasons. The souths reasoning being their trade with with Europe had been majorly hurt because of Britain, while the west blamed Britain for the Indian attacks on their frontier. Some of the War Hawks became notable, including Henry Clay who later proposed an economic system for America and also came up with many compromises to keep from going to war. While John C. Calhoun became the Vice President for Andrew Jackson.

Fourth Cause: Native American Attacks

The Treaty of Greenville was broken by the Americans moving into Indian territory. In response the Indians attacked American using British weapons that were given to them by the British in western forts. The Indians had been united by Tecumseh to protect their land. William Henry Harrison led troops against Tecumseh and his people stopping him movement. The Conflict became known as the Battle of Tippecanoe This caused Tecumseh to fled to Canada where British owned land, which confirmed that British had been helping the Indians. This was the last straw, leading to America declaring war.

Battles during the War of 1812

Fighting on the Canadian Border

Fighting on the Canadian Border consist of battles on the Great Lakes fought by the British and American Navies. This mostly consisted of Britain and America trying to invade each others land. British tried invading New York and New England, while America tried invading Canada in three places. All attempts by both sides failed. The only success of this was the burning if the city York by America.

Fighting around the Chesapeake Bay

The British Navy were moved to Chesapeake Bay and marched to Washington, D.C. As the British attacked members of the Federal government fled to safety. The aftermath of this attack was the Capital Building and the White House were burned.

Battle of Baltimore

In the Battle of Baltimore the British Navy tried attacking Baltimore but only made it to Fort Henry where they were stopped. After being stopped British ships retreated. Inspired by this battle, Francis Scott Key wrote the "Star Spangled Banner".

The Effects or the War of 1812

First Effect: Economy

During the war factories in America grew. This caused them to become more independent from Britain manufacturing.

Second Effect: Politics

After the war William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson became heros. The Federalist died out as well due to their unpatriotic actions during the Hartford Conversation.

Third Effect: Foreign Religion

After the war America gained a lot of respect from other countries. This was because they had become a world power.

Fourth Effect: Culture

After the war ended America was full of Nationalism and entered the "Era of Good Feelings". They also started exploring west. All together they created a unique new culture that was distinct from Europe.