Mid-Year Review

Chemistry, Earth History, Infectious Diseases, & Lithoshpere

Chemistry-8.P.1- Understand the properties of matter and changes that occur when matter interacts in an open and closed container.

-Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical Properties: Can be observed or measured without changing it. Odor, mass, density, volume, color, and state are all physical properties.

Chemical Properties: These properties can only be observed during a chemical reaction. Describes matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties. Flammability and reactivity are parts of chemical properties.

-Physical and Chemical Change

Physical Change: A physical change does not form a new substance.

Chemical Change: One or more substance are changed into new substance that have new and different properties.

-Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

Elements- Made up of one type of atom, they cannot be broken down any further chemically or physically, and they are located on the periodic table.

Compound: They are made of two or more atoms of different elements that are bonded together, made of elements in a specific ratio, it has a chemical formula, can only be seperated by chemical means.

Mixture- Combination of two or more pure substances that are held together by physical forces, not chemical. No chemical change takes place and it has a random composition.

-Periodic Table

The periodic table is a list of all the known elements. it is organizes by increasing atomic numbers. There are two main groups on the periodic table: metals and nonmetals. The Left side of the table contains elements with the greatest metallic properties. As you move left to right, the elements become less metallic with the far right side of the table consisting of nonmetals. The elements in the middle of the table are called "transition" elements because they are changed from metallic properties to nonmetallic properties. A small groups whose members touch the zigzag line are called metalloids because they have both metallic and nonmetallic properties.

*Groups and Periods

The table is also arranged in vertical columns called "groups" or "families" and horizontal rows are called "periods." Each arrangement is significant. The elements in each vertical column or group have similar properties. Group 1 elements all have the electron in their outer shells. This gives them similar properties. Group 2 elements all have 2 electrons in their outer shells. This is also gives them similar properties. Not all of the groups, however, hold true for pattern. The elements in the first period or row all have one shell. The elements in period 2 all have 2 shells. The elements in period have 3 shells and so on.

*Metals, NonMetals, Metalloids

Metals: The metals are located on the the first



*Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

Atomic Number: The atomic number is the equivalent to the protons and electrons.

Atomic Mass- The mass of an atom of a chemical elements that is equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in a atom.

Protons: Protons are equivalent to the atomic number.

Neutrons- Neutrons are the atomic number and atomic mass subtracted.

Electrons: Electrons are equivalent to the atomic number.

-Law of Conservation of Mass

The Law of Conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created no destroyed, it can only be transferred from state to state.


Compound- Substance formed when two or more elements chemically combine

Matter- Anything that has mass and takes up space

Solution- A substance made as a result of mixing a solid and a liquid and the solid dissolves.

Atom- The basic building block for all matter.

Mixture- Combination of two or more different substances that are mixed but not combined.

Elements- Building blocks of matter and made up of atoms.