Deoxyribonucleic Acid/DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid/DNA

  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid/DNA is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses.
  • DNA is found inside a special area of the cell called the nucleus
  • Either guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), or cytosine (C)—as well as a monosaccharide sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group.
  • The structure of DNA is a double helix formed by base pairs attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone.

What does DNA do?

DNA controls the structure and function of the entire body. its in every cell. It contains genes that control protein production. the proteins they get shipped to their appropriate destination in the body

Heredity

It is seen that most offspring are a blend of either the parents or have certain aspects are accentuated, like facial structure in humans or speed in animals. Although these topics are somewhat broad, they join together in the subject of heredity, when traits of parents are passed on to the offspring by means of the genes.

Replication

DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule. This biological process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance.

Protein Production

To make a protein, a cell must put a chain of amino acids together in the right order. First, it makes a copy of the relevant DNA instruction in the cell nucleus, and takes it into the cytoplasm - a bit like taking a photocopy of the instruction manual from the manager's office out to the assembly lines in a car factory. Here, the cell decodes the instruction and makes many copies of the protein, which fold into shape as they are produced.

RNA

  • Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
  • Types of RNA are:
    mRNA or Messenger RNA,rRNA or Ribosomal RNA, and
    tRNA or Transfer RNA.
  • What does RNA do?
    RNA fits through the pores of the nuclear membrane, unlike the DNA, allowing it to transport all of the information to the specific parts. When RNA copies parts of DNA, it only copies parts of it, only the parts needed.

DNA Replication Process [3D Animation]