By Kayli Nichols PSY 441


Presbyopia is a natural decrease in sight ability. With presbyopia, "the distance of the near point increases as a person gets older" (Goldstein, 2014). Anyone that is 35 years of age or over is at risk of developing Presbyopia. Although everyone is at risk of losing some of their sight ability as they age, some will have more loss than others.

How vision is processed

Presbyopia occurs when information enters the light is then refracted in a way that it lands behind the retina. This is what causes the information to become blurred. In order for information to be clear, the light must hit the retina directly on. When light hits in front of or behind the retina, this results in blurry information that is then sent to the brain via the optic nerve.

The Gestalt Approach

According to the Gestalt approach, we tend to perceive information in the simplest of forms. Therefore, this means that we will take a complex visual object, and fill in the necessary information in order to make it easier to understand. We simplify information in order to better perceive what we are seeing. This makes things less complicated so we can greater understand what we are seeing. We do this by re-organizing information to simplify what we are seeing.

How Vision is Affected by Presbyopia

For those who suffer from Presbyopia, the vision begins to get blurry while reading objects up close. These are situations that the individual used to be able to read with ease. This occurs due to the hardening of the lens as the body ages. The ciliary muscles also begin to weaken which makes it harder for the lens to change shape to accommodate the vision at a closer range.

Treatment Options

Currently there are no treatment options for Presbyopia. The only available options would be to receive access to corrective lenses, contact lenses, over the counter "readers," or even surgery to correct the lens.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Hard time reading small print
  • Having to hold reading material farther than arm’s distance
  • Problems seeing objects that are close to you
  • Headaches
  • Eyestrain

(National Eye Institute, 2010)


Goldstein, B. (2014). Sensation and Perception Ninth

Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

National Eye Institute (2010). Retrieved from