Five Elements of Balanced Literacy

1. PA is the ability to identify and manipulate the sound letters represent, including blending sounds to make words, creating rhyming patterns, and counting phonemes.

Three Facts

1a. PA is an auditory skill

1b. Many children learn Pa easily but many do not

1c. PA is a critical skill in learning the alphabetic principal.

2a. Instructional Resource ( print based)

- Words Their Way-( list of words from K- 3 ordered by difficulty) this assessment to analyze misspelled words and group students by developmental stages of spelling.

2b. Instructional Resource ( non print based)

www.phonological (this site has a list of activities to help develop listening habits for preschool students).

3a.Instructional Strategy

- Hickety- Pickett Bumblebee- an introduction game that lets your classmates say your name, whisper your name and clap out the syllables in your name.

3b. Instructional Strategy

- I Do It, We Do It, You Do It- allows teacher to do the activity, then teacher and student work together and finally child does it without teacher help.

4a. Authentic Assessment Strategy

- PALS- Pre-K (ages 4-5) is phonological awareness test that measures skills like name writing, letter recognition, print awareness, rhyming awareness, letter sound and nusery rhymes.This will highlight students strength and weaknesses and guide teachers instruction.

4b. Authentic Assessment Strategy

- PAST is a phonological awareness skills test that can help guide instruction and monitor a child's progress.


1. Phonics is an understanding of the alphabetic principle and the ability to apply this knowledge in the decoding of uniform words ( that letters either singly or in combination represent various sounds.

a.Letters represent sounds

b.Phonics provides the foundations for sight words

c. Phonics is an essential piece if the reading puzzle

2a. Instructional Resource ( print based)-Rhyme Recognition- using rhyming picture cards

2b.Instructional Resource (non print based) .This website has games and videos that focus on letter, letter sounds and a song for each letter of the alphabet.

3a. Instructional Strategy- Flexible Grouping consists of small groups based on students' needs or skills.

3b. Instructional Strategy- Book Walk ( going through the book and look for words that begin with the letter B. ( Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See?)

4a.Authentic Assessment-. Words Their Way (Pre primer words) a spelling test that lets you know if they have mastered phonics.

4b.Authentic Assessment- Phoneme Path ( have alphabet on the floor and students produce the sound as they step on the letter)


1.Fluency is the ability to read so effortlessly and automatically that working memory is available for the ultimate purpose of reading (extracting and constructing meaning from the text).

a. Fluency is connected to the ability to comprehend what is read

b. Fluency is a bridge between word identification and comprehension

c. Fluency consists of timed reading

2a. Instructional Resource- Read Naturally will develop a student's fluency focusing on speed, accuracy and proper expression.

2b. Instructional Resource- kids/readingplanet.htm ( this site has activities about making holiday letters, this can help with recognition.

3a. Instructional Strategy- Echo Reading ( students will pair with teacher/ older student to practice reading; teacher reads line first and student then reads the same line).

3b. Iinstructional Strategy- Choral Reading let's smalll groups read text together displayed on overhead projector

4a.Authentic Assessment - A readability formula and stopwatch+ timed reading) will help to increase student's fluency; text at reading level - Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See?

4b.Authentic Assessment-Periodic assessment of accuracy and speed of word identification skill ( sight word recognition test)


1. Vocabulary is knowing the meaning of words, knowing about the relationships between words, and having linguistic knowledge about words.

a. You can build vocabulary by reading a variety of books

b.Background knowledge builds vocabulary

c. Children need to hear a word and its definition quite a few times before they remember it.

2a. Instrucional Resource ( print based)- Tennessee Academic Vocabulary Project ( this will build students ' vocabulary based on grades and subject).

2b.Instructional Resource(non print based)-Teacher Vision (this site has an alphabet book and Rhyme Readers Time Theaters).

3a.Instructional Strategy- Word Wizards (game) motivates students to pay attention ft o words in their envirinment. (All grades)

3b.Instructional Strategy- Word Wall consists of placing words on wall and this will help children to recognize and build vobaulary.

4a. Authentic Assessment- A game using terms and phrases they have studied. This will help to see if students know spelling, meaning and how to use words.

4b.Authentic Assessment - Formal Vocabulary Assessment ( use words for an oral assessment with young children).


1. Comprehension is the extraction or construction of meaning from text using the seven cognitive strategies of highly skilled readers as appropriate.

a.Comprehension is difficult to teach

b.7 strategies of highly effective readers

c.Comprehension is a cognitive process

2a. Instructional Resource- Grade Level Thinking Skills are simple activities like stories, videos and physical activities to increase children's thinking skills. (Based on grade level)

2b. Instructional Resource- ABC Teach ( this site has videos and games based on vowel sounds and word endings).

3a.Instructional Strategy- (DI) - Creating & Extending Patterns with students. ( teach them about patterns, how to make one and how to extend it)

3b.Instructional Strategy- Modeling/ Thinking Aloud is led by teachers and you can use this in many lesson, strategy and grade levels.Teachers are describing what and why they are doing a specific activity.

4a.Authentic Assessment - Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test shows indication of a strong need for building vocabulary and comprehension skills.

4b.Authentic Assessment- Asking questions after a story ( this will help students gain comprehension and help teachers gauge students' comprehension)