Albert Einstein


Early life

"Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879. His father was an engineer who opened an electrical business in Munich. When the business failed in 1894, the Einsteins moved to Milan, Italy. Albert was left behind to finish his schooling in Munich, but he did so poorly that he was soon asked to leave school. One teacher is reported to have told him "You will never amount to anything, Einstein." Einstein left Munich eagerly as he had no love for the German people and was eager to rejoin his family.""After joining his family in Milan, Einstein devoted himself to the one subject that really interested him, mathematics. Over a period of six months, he taught himself calculus and higher mathematics. In 1895, he traveled to Zürich to take the entrance examination at the Swiss Polytechnique Institute, where a high school degree was not required. He failed the exam, but, after a year of study at the Aarau gymnasium, he retook and passed the exam.Four years later, Einstein received his degree from the Institute. He had not been a particularly good student and is said to have graduated only because of the help he received from his fellow students ' lecture notes. After graduation, Einstein experienced problems finding a job, partly because he had not been a very good student, partly because he was not a Swiss citizen, and partly because he was Jewish.Then, in 1901, Einstein received an appointment at the Swiss Patent Office. The job was not particularly demanding, and Einstein had plenty of time to study on his own. In addition, the job allowed him to apply for Swiss citizenship. During the seven years that he worked at the Patent Office, Einstein was able to complete the work necessary for his doctorate at the University of Zürich and to write three of the most significant papers in the history of science." 1.("Albert Einstein." World of Scientific Discovery. Gale, 2006. Biography in Context. Web. 11 May 2016.)

~I think this source was important because it talks about how he started off and some of the choices he made. It gave me the right information I needed

Getting involved

" Although his family was Jewish, Einstein was sent to a Catholic elementary school from 1884 to 1889. He was then enrolled at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich. During these years, Einstein began to develop some of his earliest interests in science and mathematics, but he gave little outward indication of any special aptitude in these fields. Indeed, he did not begin to talk until the age of three and, by the age of nine, was still not fluent in his native language. His parents were actually concerned that he might be somewhat mentally retarded." "In 1894, Hermann Einstein's business failed again, and the family moved once more, this time to Pavia, near Milan, Italy. Einstein was left behind in Munich to allow him to finish school. Such was not to be the case, however, since he left the gymnasium after only six more months. " "The program at ETH had nearly as little appeal for Einstein as had his schooling in Munich, however. He apparently hated studying for examinations and was not especially interested in attending classes on a regular basis. He devoted much of this time to reading on his own, specializing in the works of Gustav Kirchhoff , Heinrich Hertz , James Clerk Maxwell, Ernst Mach, and other classical physicists. When Einstein graduated with a teaching degree in 1900, he was unable to find a regular teaching job. Instead, he supported himself as a tutor in a private school in Schaffhausen. In 1901, Einstein also published his first scientific paper, "Consequences of Capillary Phenomena." " In 1905, Einstein published a series of papers, any one of which would have assured his fame in history. One, "On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid Demanded by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat," dealt with a phenomenon first observed by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown in 1827. Brown had reported that tiny particles, such as dust particles, move about with a rapid and random zigzag motion when suspended in a liquid." 2.("Albert Einstein." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Biography in Context. Web. 11 May 2016.)

~ I think this source was important, because it shows how he got involved and how he did in school, and that even though he wasn't a "good" student when it came to behavior, he always wanted to learn more.

Choices and Results

Having been appointed as engineer in the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, he simultaneously undertook the research that brought him rapid fame. At about the same time he acquired Swiss citizenship and married a fellow student; they had two sons. He also immediately began to publish one or two papers each year on theoretical physics in the Annalen der Physik. In 1905 he published three of particular note: "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" (On a Heuristic Point of View concerning the Generation and Transmission of Light, Annalen der Physik, ser. 4, 17:132–148), in which he described his photon theory of light; "Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flussigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen" (On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid Demanded by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat, ibid. 549–560), on Brownian motion; and "Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" (Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, ibid. 891–921), containing the bases of his theory of relativity. These remarkable publications led to a lectureship at Bern and a series of professorships at the Universities of Zurich (1909) and Prague (1910) and at the Polytechnic School at Zurich (1912). While at Prague, Einstein published many additional papers, including his "Über den Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes" (Concerning the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light, ibid. 35:898–908). In 1913 he went to Berlin as a member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Science, a professor at the University of Berlin without teaching or administrative obligations, and a member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Research Institute.

During World War I, Einstein acquired a reputation as an anti-militarist. He also remarried, having separated from his first wife, by mutual consent. It was also during the early wartime years that he developed the theory of

general relativity, published in his "Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie" (The Foundation of the Generalized Theory of Relativity, ibid. 49:769–822). He predicted that light from stars passing near to the sun would be deflected by a certain amount, a prediction that was confirmed by observations made during an eclipse of the sun in 1919. There was considerable opposition to the relativity theory, however, and when Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1922, the citation spoke only of his work in photoelectricity and "in the field of theoretical physics." 3.(Wallace, W. A. "Albert Einstein." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Biography in Context. Web. 12 May 2016.)

- I think this source was important because it shows enough information about Einstein and the choices he made, with the actions that came.