soil is 45% rock and the rock is cetamentary. 25% water 25% air 5% leaves. soil is a natural body consisting of layers that are primarily composed of minerals, mixed with at least some organic matter, which differ from their parent materials in there texture, stucture, consistency, color, chemical, biological and other characteristics.

how does soil form

Soil is made of minerals, decaying matter, water and air. Living things die and start decaying. As they break apart into bits, wind, water and other natural processes mix this up with minerals already in the ground adding air and water. That is how dirt is made. You can find more information here.



It is the loose covering of fine rock particles that covers the surface of the earth.[1] Soil is the end product of the influence of the climate, relief (slope), organisms, parent materials (original minerals), and time.[2]Pedology (from Greek: pedon, "soil"; and logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.[3] In engineering terms, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material that lies above the 'solid geology'.[4] In horticulture, the term 'soil' is defined as the layer that contains organic material that influences and has been influenced by plant roots, and may range in depth from centimetres to many metres.Soil is composed of particles of broken rock (parent materials) which have been altered by physical, chemical and biological processes that include weathering with associated erosion. Soil is created from the alteration of parent material by the interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.[5] Soil is commonly referred to as "earth" or "dirt"; technically, the term "dirt" should be restricted to displaced soil.[6]Soil forms a structure filled with pore spaces and can be thought of as a mixture of solids (mineral and organic),[7][8] water, and gases.[9] Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system.[10] Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm3.[11] Little of the soil of planet Earth is older than the Pleistocene and none is older than the Cenozoic,[12] although fossilized soils are preserved from as far back as the Archean.[13]