Fore Analysis Project

By: Sydney Sauer

Intro

I have chosen to kick a soccer ball for this activity. You kick soccer balls in a soccer games, in a practice, and you can do so just about anywhere you please. The reason I have chosen to kick a soccer ball for this project is because it will allow me to analyze different forces in many ways considering Newton's three main laws.


Newtons Three Main Laws


1. Newtons first law states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced/external force. This law can also be described as the Law of Inertia or be known as equilibrium. These both describe an objects desire to remain at whatever state it is in (which can also apply when an object is at rest or at a constant acceleration). Only an unbalanced force can cause a change in acceleration.

How will this law apply to my example of kicking a soccer ball?

This law can be applied to my example because it states that an object at rest will remain at rest. This means that when the soccer ball is in motion it will remain in motion, which is true, it continues to move.This can then be applied to my example with the part of the law that states that this law of equilibrium will not change unless acted upon by an external force. When I exert force onto the ball from my foot to kick it, it then moves across the ground changing it from its resting state into acceleration. (It will no longer be resting). Also, when the ball stops when I catch it with my foot, it means that I am exerting another force onto it causing the ball to change from its constant state of motion that it was in so it is then at rest. Analyzing this law will allow me to find the normal, gravitational and frictional force for the ball as it is moving at a constant rate.

2. Newtons second law states that unbalanced forces occur when forces acting on an object don't cancel each other; resulting in acceleration. {Fu does not equal 0}

How will this law apply to my example of kicking a soccer ball?

This law can apply to kicking a soccer ball because as you pass the ball you are exerting a force onto the ball that is not being equally applied to the other side of the ball, therefore causing it to move. If there was an equal force acting on the other side of the ball, it would remain at rest and would not be moved. Analyzing this law will allows me to find the unbalanced, gravitational, normal and applied force as my foot first comes into contact with the ball causing it to begin to accelerate.

3. Newtons third law states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force.

How does this law apply to my example of kicking a soccer ball?

In general terms this law means that for any force you put on an object that same amount of force will come back onto you. (The pressure you are feeling on any object as you apply a force to it is the force that is returning back to you). This applies to the basketball because when you put force onto the ball as you are about to pass it, the feeling that you are receiving back on your hands is the force being applied back to you. (These forces are equal). This will apply to the ball because as the ball is at rest it will have the same gravitational pull as it does a normal force. (Not moving because those two forces are even and no other forces are acting upon it).


Quantitative data will be created by analyzing the video as these three different laws are applying to get values for each type of force that is present allowing me to create three different force diagrams with accurate values. (One force diagram for each different law).

How will I capture this video?

I will capture this video simply by having one person record me, as I kick a soccer ball a little, which I will then run to the other side of to stop. This will capture the ball at rest on the floor, as it is moving at a constant speed, and as it is slowing down coming to a resting position because of me stopping it with my foot. I will capture good footage by making sure the full motion of the ball being passed and caught is in the video, that the ball is well visible and so are the people in the video. I will make sure I capture the video in a place with no wind so the ball is not affected by any external force aside from my force of push or anything else when in motion.

Newton's First Law- An object at rest will remain at rest/An object in motion will remain in motion

How does this part of my example compare to Newton's first law?

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In this part of the video the ball is moving at a constant speed. It does not stop until I run to the other side to stop it. If I wouldn't have done that the ball would have continued to stay in motion.
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Fg applies downwards because their is always a gravitational force pulling downwards. I found this value by multiplying the mass of the soccer ball, 0.425 and the force of gravitational pull 9.8 N. Fn applies perpendicular to the top of the object (opposite of gravity). Fn has the same value of Fg because of Newtons third law that states that any action force applies an opposite and equal reaction force; they are the same. The Ff value applies to the right of the ball because in the video the ball is moving to the left; the applied force is applied to the left. The frictional force is most often applied in the opposite direction of the applied force because that is the direction that the friction is being created. I found this value by finding Fu with multiplying mass and acceleration (slope) of the object during this part of the video as it was at constant acceleration. The reason that you are able to use the calculation for Fu to resemble Ff in this situation is because their is no other force being applied that is unbalanced, therefore the ball must still have some sort of force causing it to move at its constant rate. That unbalanced force is Fu, otherwise in this situation can be used as Ff.

Newton's Second Law- Unbalanced forces occur when forces acting on an object don't cancel each other; resulting in acceleration

How does this part of my example connect to Newton's Second Law?

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In this part of the video I am applying an uneven external force from my foot onto the ball causing it to accelerate.
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The Fg and Fn were found the same way as the Newtons first law situation (by multiplying the mass and gravitational pull of the object, which means it will be the same through all examples). The reason that these two forces will never change is because force is only being applied in the x direction, not in the y direction. For the force of friction, the value was the same as the Ff value in the Newtons first law example. Since we already solved for it and the ball is still moving in the same direction, as it was in the 1st example, I will not have to solve for it again because it will not change. Solving for the force applied. The force was applied in the x direction, and was caused because I kicked the ball.The first thing I did to solve for Fa was find Fu (the unbalanced force that was applied because of me kicking the ball which is what causes the ball to move). I used mass and acceleration of the object (at this specific time in the video while it was in beginning motion) to solve for Fu. I then added Fu to the value of Ff, which gives me Fa. The reason adding those two forces together can give me Fa is because your applied force must be larger than your Ff in order to make the object move in the x direction (in this case to the left). Fu, is the difference in forces between Ff and Fa, so when you add Ff and Fu it gives you a larger amount to use for Fa proving that in real life the ball moved to the left because of the unbalanced force I applied to the ball by kicking it.

Newton's Third Law- For every action force there will be an equal and opposite reaction force

How does this part of my example compare to Newton's third law?

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In this part of the video the ball is at rest, it is not moving and has not been touched. It's gravitational force is the same as the normal force that is being applied.
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In this force diagram the only two forces that are being applied are the normal and gravitational force. The reason this is, is because the ball is not moving at all, it is at complete rest. Although the ball is at rest it is still applying a force to the ground because of the gravitational pull. That force was found by multiplying the 0.425 kg mass of the ball and the 9.8 N gravitational pull, resulting in a value of 4.165 N. Since Newtons third law states that any action force (in this case in the gravitational force) will have an opposite and equal reaction force it causes the normal force of this object to also be 4.165 N. Since these two values are the same we can prove that Newtons third law is true in this situation.

Conclusion

In conclusion the first phase of motion resembles Newtons first Law. (An object in motion will remain in motion/an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an external force). I was able to apply this law to me kicking the soccer ball because once I kicked it, it continued to roll at a constant rate until I stopped it causing it to no longer continue moving. With the information I found from this example I was able to find the force of gravity, normal force and the force of friction for this situation for this situation to prove that Newtons first law applies. The second phase of motion resembles Newtons second Law. (Unbalanced forces occur when forces acting on an object don't cancel each other; resulting in acceleration). I was able to apply this law to me kicking the soccer ball because when my foot first came in contact with the ball, exerting the external force on it from my foot, it caused it to accelerate. When I kicked it with the external force from my foot it applied an unbalanced force to the ball, causing it to accelerate. With the information I found from this example I was able to find the force of gravity, normal force, applied force and force of friction for this situation to prove that Newtons second law applies. The third phase of motion resembles Newtons third Law. (For every action force their is an equal and opposite reaction force). I was able to apply this law to me kicking the soccer ball because when the ball was at rest on the ground it was applying a force to the ground (which in this case is considered the action force) because of the gravitational pull. Since no other forces were acting on the ball their was an equal and opposite reaction force that was applied to the normal force, perpendicular to the equal force of gravity.With the information I found from this example I was able to find the force of gravity and normal force for this situation to prove that Newtons third law applies. Using Newtons three laws I was able to create situations where it was possible for me to find all different forces and values that applied to me kicking the ball and different phases of it. I was able to example these three laws by using specific situations, equations, graphs and values to prove that they were true.

Real life application

Although all these forces apply in just these few specific situations their are many other ways that these forces can help us as humans create or manage harder tactics not only in soccer but in other real world situations based off the findings of my information. Other ways that this can improve the sport of soccer is by being able to understand how the mass of the ball and how you kick it can effect how what type of a frictional force that applies and what can result from it. This can allow for better understanding on how a shorter or longer pass can be created. Some of the ways that this information can be applied to a situation outside of a sport, could be a real life situation that might be designed to be pushed to roll an object on the ground to perform a task. Having this information on how specific forces react on other forces can create a better understanding for how something like this could be designed specific ways to conform to the needs of the task and wants of the engineer, creator or designer.

Possible errors

Throughout this project there were an infinite amount of human and experimental errors that could have occurred. Some of the human errors that could have occurred would have been incorrect interpretation of the information on the graph, misinterpretation of newtons three laws resulting in incorrect video and data collection or creation of a poor example resulting in incorrect data collection. These errors can be avoided by paying extra attention to how the points on the graph turn out after analyzing the video, making sure that you have a through understanding of Newtons three laws and how to apply them to a real life activity. Some of the experimental errors that could have occurred were the soccer ball changing position (going forward or backward) while in constant movement, poor video quality resulting in non-accurate plotted points or if the ball I am to kick, lifts off the ground at any point and it goes un-noticed. These things can be avoided by making sure the video that is taken contains simple and correct evidence that all three laws can be applied to the activity with no errors. By doing this, accurate points should be easier to graph. Some of the human errors I encountered was not creating an accurate video to support newtons laws and miscalculations. I fixed that by re-doing the video an easier way so it was easier to read and create values from when making a force diagram. These errors could have been avoided by assuming how the plotted points would turn up on the graph before filming the video and by having better knowledge on how to calculate forces in more complex situations. Fortunately I did not encounter any experimental errors.