Human Disease

How do medications and diseases Impact us today?

Bacterial diseases

AIDS is caused by having sex unprotected, blood transfusions, needles being shared, pregnancy, or even breastfeeding. AIDS comes from HIV. HIV destroys your CD4 cells. This weakens the immune system more and more as it progresses. Turning into AIDS. This could take years to do. There is no cure for AIDS although there are medications to help fight the complications and help your immune system..

AIDS Symptoms
  • Dry cough
  • Shortness of breathe
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Diarrhea
  • White spots and unusual blemishes in or around the mouth
  • Pneumonia symptoms
  • Fever
  • Vision loss
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Vomiting


Anthrax is caused by contracting a bacteria called Bacillus Anthracis. This bacteria is found in cattle and other hoofed animals. This bacteria is more likely to be found in South and Central America, South and East Europe, and Asia and Africa. Anthrax can be treated with antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin.

Anthrax Symptoms

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever
  • Bloody Diarrea
  • Chest congestion
  • Abdominal Pain


Tuberculosis is caused by contracting a bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This disease is spread when a person with an active tuberculosis infection in their lungs coughs or sneezes and somebody else inhales the bacteria spread through the air. Tuberculosis can be treated through antibiotics and prevent resistant bacteria from coming to your body. The antibiotics that you may be put on is isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazuamide, or ethambutol.

Tuberculosis

  • Bad cough that persists for 3 weeks or longer
  • Pain in chest
  • Coughing up blood
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • No appetite
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Night sweats


Typhoid Fever is caused by the bacteria Salmonella Paratyphi or Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella P causes a less sever illness. This bacteria is contracted through water and food. The bacteria gets into the food due to unhealthy contamination. Typhoid Fever is treated with antibiotics to kil the Salmonella bacteria. Chloramphenicol was the highest drug choice to treat this until rare but serious side effects occurred. They then switched the treatment to other antibiotics and in very serious cases, the removal of the gallbladder will cure the infection.

Typhoid Fever

  • Poor appetite
  • Headaches
  • Aches and pains
  • Fever of (104 Degrees)
  • Lethargy
  • Diarrea
  • Chest congestion
  • Abdominal pain


Limes Disease is caused by the bacteria Borrelia Burgdorferi. This bacteria can be contracted from the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. These ticks carry the disease in their bodies and administer it to the blood stream through the bite. Most cases of Lyme Disease is curable with antibiotics, if the disease is caught early. If the disease progresses to the later stage it will require long term intravenous antibiotics.

Limes Disease

  • Rash
  • Flu symptoms
  • Joint Pain
  • Meningitis
  • Bells Palsy
  • numb or weak limbs
  • Impaired muscle movement
  • Liver inflammation
  • Severe Fatigue

Neurological Diseases

Huntington's Disease is a inherited disease. Huntington's disease is caused by an autosomal pattern. Not everybody gets impacted by the disease at the same time. A parents with the mutation in the HD gene has a 50/50 chance of passing the disease to the child. Huntington's Disease has no cure but there are ways to slow the progression of the disease. Some treatments are diets, supplements, exercise, spiritual and psychosocial support.

Huntington Disease Symptoms
  • Involuntary jerking
  • Muscle Problems
  • Slow/abnormal eye movements
  • Impaired gait, posture, and balance.
  • Difficulty with physical production of speech and swallowing


Parkinson's Disease is caused by a neurodegenerative disorder which causes progression deterioration of the motor functions because of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Small percentages of people with Parkinson's have a family member with this disease. But abnormal genes seem to be a factor in families with multiple cases of Parkinsons. Although Parkinson's Disease can't be cure there is medication that can help manage the issues with walking, moving, and tremors. This is done by increasing your brains supply of dopamine. Dopamine can't be given directly because it can't enter your brain. The main medication used to treat Parkinson's Disease is Carbidopa-Levodopa.

Parkinsons Disease Symptoms

  • Tremors
  • Slowed movement
  • Rigid muscles
  • Impaired posture and balance
  • Loss of automatic movements
  • Speech changes
  • Writing changes


Alzheimers is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors affecting the brain over time. Studies have shown that less than 5 percent of Alzheimers patients have genetic that guaranteed the person would develop the disease. An alzheimers patients brain will continually shrink as brain cells die. Although Alzheimers can't be cured, slowed down, or reversed there are medications to help manage the symptoms. If caught early Alzheimers can be managed at home.

Alzheimers Disease Symptoms

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Social withdrawal
  • Mood swings
  • Distrust in others
  • Irritability and aggressiveness
  • Changes in sleeping habits
  • Wandering
  • Loss of ambitions
  • Delusional


Muscular Dystrophy is caused by mutations in multiple genes. They don't have to be the same type of gene either. They can be in any type of gene and in multiple ones. Muscular Dystrophy can not be cure but there are medications that can slow the progression of the disease. There are research studies looking into the impact of dietary supplements such as creatine and glutamine to help build of muscle energy productions. Exercise, physical therapy, rehab, respiratory care, and surgery can help relieve symptoms.

Muscular Dystrophy Symptoms

  • Frequent Falls
  • Difficulty getting up and laying down
  • Trouble running and jumping, waddling, and walking on toes.
  • Large calf muscles
  • Muscle pain and stiffness
  • Learning disabilities


Spina Bifida is caused by multiple factors scientists say. These factors are genetics, nutritional, and environment. Studies say that Spina Bifida is caused by having an insufficient amount of folic acid. This is a key vitamin. The mothers diet is the key factor in causing Spina Bifida. Spina Bifida treatment is personalized for each individual. The treatment should be based on problems with disability, physical, emotional or educational issues that interfere with the persons potential.

Spina Bifida Symptoms

  • Abnormal tift of hair
  • Collection of fat
  • Small dimple or birthmark
  • Muscle weakness of legs
  • Bowel and bladder problems
  • Seizures
  • Orthopedic problems; deformed feet, uneven hips, curved spine.

Autoimmune Diseases

The exact cause of Lupus is unknown but scientist do believe that genetics and environmental factors have an impact on developing lupus. Some environmental factors can also increase or decrease lupus's symptoms. Lupus is treated with corticosteroids, antimalarials, monoclonal antibodies, and aspirin.

Lupas Symptoms
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Joint pain
  • Butterfly shaped rash covering the cheek or bridge of the nose
  • Skin lesions that worsen with light
  • Fingers and toes that turn white and blue during stress
  • Shortness of breathe
  • Chest pain
  • Dry eyes
  • Headaches
  • Confusion
  • Memory loss


Rheumatoid Arthritis is believed to be caused by genes that make you more susceptible to environmental factors like viruses and bacteria. Your immune system attacks the synovium; the lining of the membranes that surround your joints. There is not a cure for Rheumatoid Arthritis but aggressive management can reduce joint inflammation and pain. This can also maximize joint function and minimize joint destruction and deformity.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Joint tenderness
  • Join swelling
  • Joint redness
  • Joint warmth
  • Joint stiffness
  • Multiple joints impacted
  • Symmetrical pain/irritation of joints


Multiple Sclerosis is believed to be caused by environmental factors. These factors are age, gender, genetics, certain infections, race, climate, and whether you smoke or not. Women are twice as likely to develop multiple sclerosis as men are. Multiple Sclerosis can by treated with medications called Aubagio, Avonex, Betaseron, Copaxone, and Gilenya. These medications help by suppressing the immune system.

Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Numbness
  • Paralysis
  • Vision loss
  • Diminished brain function


Vitiligo can be caused by an autoimmune disorder, genetic oxidative stress imbalances, stressful events, harm to skin, exposure to certain chemicals, viral cause, and neural cause. This is a very uncommon disease and only impacts about 1% of people. Vitiligo can be treated by applying medicine, light treatment, PUVA light therapy, Surgery, vitamins and minerals, and depigmentation. Some other people use cosmetics to cover the spots.

Vitiligo Symptoms

  • Pigment loss in skin
  • Premature whitening or graying of scalp hair, eyelashes, eyebrows, and beards.
  • Loss of color in mouth tissue


Pernicious Anemia is caused by the loss of the stomach cells that make intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor helps the body absorb the B12 vitamin in the intestines. The majority of the time these cells are lost due to being destroyed by the bodies immune system. Pernicious Anemia can be treated by replenishing the B-12 vitamin supply. Symptoms of Pernicious Anemia should improve after a few days after treatment starts.

Pernicious Anemia Symptoms

  • Tired/weak
  • Tingling
  • Numbness in hands and feet
  • Red smooth tongue

Medication

Hydrocodone

Hydrocodone is a strong pain medication commonly used to treat pain for wisdom teeth removal. It is considered an opioid (strong pain medication for injuries and surgeries). It is classified as a narcotic and is easy to get addicted to if abused.

Sulfonamide

Sulfonamide or better known as Sulfa is a antibacterial. This medication inhibits the growth and multiplication of bacteria but does not kill them. That's where your immune system has to come in and attack the bacteria cells that can't fight back. The medication is commonly used to treat strep throat, coughs, bacterial infections on the skin, and bacterial illnesses. The chances of having a allergic reaction to this medication is 3%. Reactions to this medication are most commonly hypersensitivity (rash or hives). A more serious issue that Sulfonamide has is because it displaces bilirubin from albumin is can cause brain damage due to the excess bilirubin.

Celexa

Celexa is an antidepressant classified as a SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors). These SSRIs work on neurotransmitters (the chemicals the effect how the nerves in the brain communicate with each other). Depression is caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters such as serotonin. Common side effects are blurred vision, fever, memory loss, rashes, and trouble breathing. In some cases Celexa can cause an increase in depression and cause suicidal thought, this is more common in teenagers.

Warfarin

Warfarin is a anticoagulant (blood thinner). This is used to treat people with increased risk of blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes. This medicine should not be taken if you have any type of bleeding disorder or unexplained bleeding as once you start bleeding your blood is so thin that its extremely hard to get it to clot up. Even a small cut gives you the risk of serious blood loss. Common side effects of warfarin are bleeding gums, chest pain, blurred vision, coughing up blood, and difficulty breathing.

Prednisone

Prednisone is a corticosteroid, this means that is stops the release of substances into the body that can potentially cause inflammation. Prednisone also is used to suppress your immune system. Defined as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant it can treat multiple different conditions such as arthritis, lupus, breathing disorders, and allergic reactions. It is required to avoid sickly people due to your weakened immune system from this medication. Common side effects are blurred vision, swelling, depression, pancreatitis, and low potassium levels.

Penicillin

Penicillin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in your body, not to be confused with Sulfa, which only stops growth and regrowth of bacterial cells. Penicillin is most commonly used to treat ear infection and other types of infections caused by bacteria. This medication is known to decrease the effectiveness of birth control so it is very important to inform your doctor of any birth control medications you are prescribed to as this medication can increase the chances of pregnancy. Penicillin is not a medication that can treat viral infections such as the common cold or the flu. But is capable of treating Athrax. (A disease mentioned above).

Isoniazid

Isoniazid is not a wide range medicine. This means instead of killing many different types of bacteria and illnesses it only focuses on one. This bacteria is called mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the cause of TB (Tuberculosis). Some possible side effects of this medication is clumsiness, vomiting, loss of appetite, and numbness or pain in the hands and feet. Overdosing isoniazid has associated with seizures, which may require dialysis to decrease the amount of isoniazid in the patients blood.

Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol is used to treat very serious infections such as Typhoid Fever. It works by slowing then killing the bacteria. There are some serious effects from Chloramphenicol such as Leukemia and fatal blood problems. Even if used in the short term it's still known to cause anemia, low white blood cell counts, and low blood platelets. It should not be used unless absolutely necessary and no other safer, more effective medication can be used.

Sources

I used Web.md and www.drugs.com to get my information.