How Mountains Are Formed

Different processes in which mountains are formed

The Himalayan Mountains

The Himalayas are an extremely famous tourist attraction known for its ever-growing peaks and range of 1,800 miles. But how did these mountains form?

The formation of Himalayan Mountains are due to the Indian sub-continent and the Asian continent. Over the period of millions of years the Indian sub-continent finally met with and collided with the Asian continent causing it to be pulled under, and led to the two continents folding, forming mountains. It is believed that India's coastline was more dense which is was pulled under rather than it being the other way around. The Indian sub-continent is still moving north, meaning the mountains will continue to grow as well as erode over time.

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Mt. Kinabalu

Mt. Kinabalu is a beautiful mountain known for its wonderful flora and fauna population. This mountain has a very diverse with at least 600 species of ferns, 326 species of birds, and 100 species of mammals have been discovered living in this area. Many of the plants found are exclusively on the mountain and nowhere else on the Earth. This mountain is located on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia with an elevation of 13,435'.

This mountain is considered young geologically, because it has only been around for about 10 million years. This mountain was formed due to volcanic intrusion, which is the process of magma seeping from under the ground to the surface and sometimes pushing previous rock out of the way. This can take millions of years for the mountain to fully develop. This is how many mountains are formed such as the Sierra Nevada in California. Mt. Kinabalu is still rising today at a rate of 5 millimeters per year. On the north side of the mountain is a gully known as Low's Gully, which was formed 100,000 years ago by a large mass of ice and glaciers which left a 5,900' hole in the mountain.

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The Sierra Nevada

The Sierra Nevada mountain range is located in the western United States, in California, and is home to several national parks and wilderness areas and is approximately 70 miles wide from east to west. Its highest peak is Mount Whitney with an elevation of 14,505'. This range is a block mountain range, which means it was formed due to the tilting and/or rising of fault blocks. Many individual points of this range have tilted west over time, while the east facing pieces have risen and made the range as tall as it is today.
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Hannah Beaver

Earth/Environmental Science

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