Germination and Plant Growth

By Claire and Tim

What is inside a seed when it dormant?

Inside a seed there is Roots, shoot(stem), cellular respiration, glucose or starch, and oxygen. When a seed is dormant it has two main functions the first is synchronizing germination with the optimal conditions for survival of the resulting seedling; the second is spreading germination of a batch of seeds over time so a catastrophe after germination.

What happens when the seed absorbs water? Why do roots and shoots develop first?

As the water gets soaks into the plant the plant starts to swell or bloat the seed coat splits allowing the seed to germinate and grow.

In the growth of the roots and shoots the roots develop first in order to sustain the structure of the plant. It also helps brings up the necessary nutrients to help the plant growth. The shoots eventually turn into the leaves and stem of the plant and they are needed to get the energy-light from the plant.

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Difference between monocot and dicot germination? Amount of time? Why?

Some of the differences are that monocots have leaf veins are parallel,Vascular bundles usually complexity arranged, Fibrous root system, and Floral parts usually in multiples of three. Dicots have veins usually netlike, vascular bundles usually arranged in ring, taproot usually present, and Floral parts usually in multiples of four or five. The differences between how there germinate is when monocots have one leaf which are small and thin and dicots have two seed leaves which are fat because they are full of the plants nutrients. It doesn’t take long with the right conditions.

Does the presence of light affect germination? How or Why?

Most plant it doesn’t matter if it is in darkness or light unless you are in a forest setting and in that setting the plant waits to grow until sunlight is let through the canopy. It all depends on the environment and the plant type if it needs light or not.

Why do some seeds not germinate at all?

Some reasons that they don’t germinate is because of them being planted too deep, no light, seeds drying out and there are a lot more reasons.

Why do some germinated seeds die when transplanted to soil?

They could dry out, not enough nutrients in the soil for them to grow, or Post-emergent damping-off.

What are the vital nutrients for seed germination?

There are 16 nutrient elements required to grow crops. There are 3 essential nutrients carbon (C),hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O2). Then 13 other nutrients known as Primary, Secondary, and Micronutrients. Some primaries are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). THe secondary are calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulfur (S). The Micronutrients are iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B) and molybdenum (Mo).

How does gravitropism affect germinated seeds?

Plant shoots grow away from gravity, toward sunlight, while plant roots grow into the soil in the direction of gravity. So depending on where the seed is and how it is facing it would change its growth.

Are beans and Corn vascular or nonvascular, monocot or dicot, angiosperm or gymnosperm?

Corn and beans are vascular.

Corn is monocot.

Beans are Dicots.

Beans and corn are angiosperms.

The Description and the Function of Xylem and Phloem

The function of the xylem is to transport Water and mineral from roots to aerial parts of the plant.

The Function of the Phloem is transportation of food and nutrients such as sugar and amino acids from leaves to storage organs and growing parts of plant.

The structure of the xylem is a Tubular shape with no cross walls which allows a continuous column of water + facilitates more rapid transport within the xylem vessels.

The structure of the Phloem a Elongated, tubular shape with thin walled sieve tubes. The sieve tubes have pores at each end in the cross walls and microtubules that extend between sieve elements allowing longitudinal flow of material.

What type of roots do plants have?

There are two different types of roots there is Taproot and Fibrous root. The corn plant being a monocot has the Fibrous root system, having a mass of similarly sized roots. The bean plant has a Taproot, having one main root (the taproot) from which smaller branch roots emerge.

Soil Nutrients test





To fix the the Nitrogen and Phosphorus being depleted we added plant food to our plants to hopefully fix that they were depleted.

Our plant is generally small in stem but our leaves are a medium size, our corn is tall and flimsy.

Nitrogen controls the plants height.

Phosphorus controls the plants photosynthesis. . It conversion of light energy to chemical energy

Plant Growth Rates

Our plants have always increased size they have never decreased in there size. We have always had natural light for our plants. They have always grown by a few centimeters in a couple days. I have noticed that they leaves have started to get waves in them from where the milk has been and the milk has crystalized on the leaves.

Plants response to Hormones

The plants are showing that the milk we have been putting on the once a day is helping by giving them more calcium. The two big plants we have are fighting to get to the sun because so they can produce more beans.


The growth of the plants for ours were all in the stems and leaves there wasn't much growth were we put our markers. The stem of a plant grows from the apical meristem. Our plants are growing vertically and going closer to where the sun is at.

What we learned

We learned that if you have the right amount of moist and light you can have profitable amount of growth from your plants. Along with adding calcium it can make the plant grow faster by supplying it with a high amount of calcium.