An Element of Madness
Chapter 15 by Sam Keen - Zachary Mclean
Atomic Number: 34
Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4
Classification: Other non-metal
Location: Chile, United States, and Peru
Selenium is mostly found as a byproduct of refining Copper(Gagnon, 2015). It was first discovered in 1817. Selenium's resistance to the flow of energy depends on how much sunlight is shining on it(Gagnon,2015). This makes Selenium very useful in things such as photocells, electric eyes, and light meters. Selenium is found in elements such as eucairite( CuAgSe) and crooksite(CuThSe)(Gagnon,2015). One of Selenium's other characteristics is that it electricity straight from sunlight, which is why it is also used in solar cells. Selenium is also a semiconductor and is used in some solid-state electronics(Gagnon,2015). Selenium was discovered by a scientist named Jons Jacob Berzelius.
Atomic Number: 25
Electron Configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5
Classification: Transition Metal
Location: China, Africa, Australia, and Gabon
Manganese is one of the most common metals found in the Earths crust. Manganese was discovered in 1774 by Johan Gottlieb Gahn, but was proposed by Carl Wilhelm Scheele earlier that year to be an element(Gagnon,2015). Close to 90% of Manganese is used in the production of steel(Gagnon,2015). It is added to the molten steel to get rid of oxygen and sulfur. Manganese is also used to remove green color from glass when iron contaminants are in the glass Manganese is also in pyrolusite( MnO2)(Gagnon,2015).
Atomic Number: 46
Electron Configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d10
Classification: Transition Metal
Location: Russia, South America, North America, Ethiopia, and Australia
Palladium was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. It is named after the asteroid Pallas, which was found around the same time as palladium(Los Alamos,2016). Palladium does not tarnish in air and is a silvery metal. When cold worked it greatly increases the strength of this metal(Los Alamos,2016). Palladium can also at room temperature absorb up to 900 times its own volume in hydrogen(Gagnon,2015). Palladium is also used in jewelry. Specifically in white gold. White gold is gold that is decolorized when palladium is added to it(Gagnon,2015). Palladium is normally found with deposits of nickel, gold, copper, silver, platinum, and gold(Gagnon,2015). It is also used to make surgical instruments and dental fillings. One palladium compound is palladium dichloride(PdCl2)(Gagnon,2015).
Atomic Number: 56
Electron Configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 6s2
Classification: Alkaline Earth Metal
Location: United States and Europe
Barium was first discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808(Gagnon,2015). Barium is never found free in the environment because it reacts with water and air, but it can found in barite( BaSO4)(Gagnon,2015). Barium is used for X-rays and as a material that gets out trace gases from vacuum hoses(Friedman,2016). It is also in bologna stones(Friedman2016). These stones will glow in the dark for up to 6 years if intensely heated. Barium is also used to make ceramic and also some types of glass(Gagnon,2015). All barium compounds are also poisonous.
Atomic Number: 111
Electron Configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 5f14 6s2 6p6 6d10 7s1
Roentgenium was first produced in 1994(Gagnon,2015). It was made in Darmstadt, Germany by Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Munzenber, and their team(Gagnon,2015). They were working at the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung(Gagnon,2015). They made Roentgenium by bombarding atoms of bismuth- 209 with ions of nickel-64(Gagnon,2015). This made only three atoms of Roentgenium-272 that had a half-life of 1.5 milliseconds(Gagnon,2015). Roentgenium has no uses since only a few atom of Roentgenium have ever been made. The most stable isotope of Roentgenium is Roentgenium-281, which has a half-life of 26 seconds(Gagnon,2015). Roentgenium decays using spontaneous fission.
Gagnon, S.(2015).The Element Selenium. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele034.html
Gagnon, S.(2015).The Element Manganese. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele025.html
Gagnon, S.(2015).The Element Palladium. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele046.html
Gagnon, S.(2015).The Element Barium. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele056.html
Gagnon, S.(2015).The Element Roentgenium. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele111.html
Minerals Education Coalition(2016).Copper. Retrieved from https://www.mineralseducationcoalition.org/minerals/copper
Los Alamos(2016).Palladium. Retrieved from http://periodic.lanl.gov/46.shtml
Friedman, H.(2016). The Mineral Barite. Retrieved from http://www.minerals.net/mineral/barite.aspx
Wikipedia(2015). The Disappearing Spoon. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Disappearing_Spoon