Animal Farm

By: Camille Toups

Novel Genres

Allegory:

A story in which the characters or the events in the novel stand for something else.

Animal Fable:

A story in which the animals in the story talk and act like humans in the story.

Satire:

A novel that has humor and makes fun of humans, but has a serious message behind it.

Chapter Summaries

Chapter 1

1. Mr. Jones is introduced to the story as an alcoholic.

2. Old Major gives speech about animalism.

3. The animals sing "Beasts of England".

4. Mr. Jones think that a fox has gotten into the barn, so he shoots.

Chapter 2

1. Old Major dies 3 nights later in his sleep, and the animals don't know what to do.

2. Moses tells of Sugarcandy Mountain, which is the place where animals go when they die.

3. Mr. Jones forget to feed the animals, so the animals drive Mr. Jones off of the farm.

4. The animals get back to work.

Chapter 3

1. The animals work really hard during the summer.

2. The pigs teach themselves how to read and write.

3. Jessie and Bluebell give birth to puppies.

4. The pigs think that they should be the only animals who eat the apples and drink the milk because they are the smart ones on the farm, and they should eat better because of this.

Chapter 4

1. People start to learn about the Animal Farm.

2. In the beginning of fall, a flight of pigeons tell the animals that Mr. Jones is returning to the farm along with some other men.

3. The animals ambush the men. Boxer unintentionally kills a stable boy, and feels guilty, even though he is a human.

4. The animals keep Mr. Jones' gun and agree to only shoot only on 2 special occasions one a year.

Chapter 5

1. Mollie is lured into the home of a human, and now pulls his carriage.

2. Snowball wants to build a windmill for the farm.

3. Snowball was holding a meeting, when Napoleon called for the guard dogs. The dogs chased Snowball off the farm.

4. Napoleon then says he thinks building a windmill was a good idea.

Chapter 6

1. The animals work really hard that year, so that they would have enough food, and to build the windmill.

2. They start building the windmill at the end of summer.

3. Napoleon hired a human, Mr. Whymper, to help get the supplies needed for the construction of the windmill.

4. The pigs start breaking the 7 commandments. Clover said that no animals can sleep in beds that have sheets.

5. The windmill has been destroyed by the storm.

Chapter 7

1. Animals want to build a new windmill with walls two times thicker.

2. Napoleon says that in order to have enough food, the hens must sell 400 eggs per week.

3. The hens rebel, and 9 of them are killed by Napoleon.

4. Napoleon gathers a meeting, and orders those who have been talking with snowball were to have their throats ripped out. Four pigs and the rest of the hens who rebelled were killed.

5. Squealer tells the animals are no longer allowed to sing "Beasts of England"

Animal Farm (1954) - The Chickens' Uprising

Chapter 8

1. The commandment that read that "No animal shall kill any other animal" has changed to "No animal shall kill any other animal without cause".

2. The animals learn that Mr, Frederick is the buyer of the timber.

3. The 2nd windmill is finished, but blown to ashes by Mr. Frederick's men.

4. The commandment that read that "No animal shall drink alcohol" has changed to "No animal shall drink alcohol to excess".

Chapter 9

1. Only pigs and dogs are allowed to eat more than the given rations of food.

2. Napoleon wants to build a school for his piglets even though there is almost no money left.

3. In April, the government declares Animal Farm a republic.

4. Boxer dies after collapsing while pulling stone for the new windmill.

5. Animals murmur that the pigs are going to buy another crate of whiskey instead of food for the other animals.

Chapter 10

1. A long time has passed, and a lot of the old animals have died.

2. The pigs learn how to stand and walk on their 2 legs, just like humans.

3. Name is changed back to Manor Farm instead of Animal Farm.

4. Animals start to realize that they can no longer tell the difference between the humans and the pigs.

Characters and Symbolism

Snowball:

-pig

-great speaker, and gets excited about rebelling

-symbolizes Leon Trotsky, the founding leader of the Red Army

Napoleon:

-pig

-quiet, and manipulative

-symbolizes the French military leader, Napoleon Bonaparte

Old Major:

-pig

-the wisest animal on the farm

-tired of man's greed

-symbolizes Karl Marx, the German Philosopher

Mollie:

-horse

-pretty, vain, gets too close to humans

-symbolizes the middle class of society

Benjamin:

-donkey

-wise donkey who sits back and laughs at the other animals

-symbolizes all of the smart people

Boxer:

-horse

-very strong, and hardworking

-symbolizes the hardworking people of society

Clover:

-horse

-strong, loyal, and unintelligent

-symbolizes female laborers

Moses:

-raven

-tells animals about "Sugarcandy Mountain"

-symbolizes the Russian Orthodox Church

Squealer:

-pig

-tells the animals lies, and sugar-coats a lot of things

-he symbolizes Vyacheslav Molotov, the German Soviet politician

Muriel:

-goat

-is a symbol for all of the elders of the society

Mr. Jones:

-human

-alcoholic who forgets to feed the animals

-symbolizes the last Tsar of Russia

Mr. Frederick:

-human

-tough and shrewd

-A symbol for Hitler

Mr. Pilkington:

-human

-gentleman, and easy going

-A symbol for the West (of U.S. and U.K.)

Mr. Whymper:

-human

-a sly-looking lawyer, and only cares about money

-Mr. Whymper symbolizes all of the who helped the Soviet union

Sheep:

-they are not intelligent

-they go with the crowd

-symbolize people who are part of a crowd instead of being away from the crowd

Dogs

-ferocious, and loyal to Napoleon

-symbolize Stalin's police force

Ducklings

-unintelligent and are laborers

-symbolize the lower class, since they are hardly mentioned in the novel

Motifs

Songs

-the song "Beasts of England" is important because it is what unites the animals in the beginning and is a symbol of change for the farm.

-When the animals are no longer allowed to sing "Beasts of England" it shows they are going back to the type of leadership when Mr. Jones was in charge of the farm.

Rituals

-The flag ceremony symbolizes a secular society in witch religion has been replaced by the government. Instead of praising God, they're encouraged to pay tribute to the state.

-Another example of a ritual was the poems, which allowed the pigs to keep their powers. Thee rituals are symbols of propaganda of the Soviet Union and the essays Communist Russia.

Themes

The Corruption of Socialist Ideals in the Soviet Union

-Communism, fascism, and capitalism are all present as Orwell writes the events of the Russian Revolution as they unfold.

-The happenings match events in the history of Russian communism, and several of the animal characters are based on actual Russian leaders

The Societal Tendency towards Class Stratification

-This novel represents us as humans in any society.

-It shows internal structure of our rulers and government (the pigs), army (the dogs), and middle class (the other animals)

The Danger of a Naive Working Class

-The book has Napoleon, the pig, fooling the other animals, who represent the working class, into thinking that he is the smartest out of all of them, that has the right o oppress them, and make them do essentially slave labor.

The Abuse of Language as Instrumental to the Abuse of Power

- Orwell proves language can be manipulated as an instrument of control.

-An example is when they pigs gradually change the idea of socialist revolution to justify their behavior and keep the other animals in the dark

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