Causes of the American Revolution

Anna Esaka 1763-1776

American Revolution 1775-1783


The American Revolution was a war for the 13 colonies' independence consisting of many battles and skirmishes against England. After the French and Indian War, the taxes enforced for imported good (Navigation Acts), paper goods (Stamp Act), tea (Tea Act), and other everyday goods (Townshend Acts) caused conflicts as the colonists had no representation in the English government. Not only that, King George III put the Proclamation of 1763 in action, so the Ohio River Valley that the colonists fought for was for nothing. All of these events made the colonists enraged, which led to many protests (Boston Tea Party and 1st Continental Congress) and boycotts, while England send soldiers for the Boston Massacre and a house to stay at (Quartering Act) and closed the port in Boston (Intolerable Act). The colonists were justified in declaring their independence because England taxed the colonists with no voice in Parliament, didn't let them settle in the land west of Appalachian Mountains, and send soldiers, which made colonists feel confined.

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Navigation Acts 1650-1700s

The Navigation Acts was an act based on mercantilism that regulated trade in the colonies. The colonists exported raw materials to England only with English or colonial ships, and if there was an exported good going outside the English empire, it would have to go to England 1st. The colonists could only buy manufactured goods from England since there was no manufacturing set up in the colonies. There was smuggling within the 13 Colonies due to the Sugar Act, a tax on imported sugar from French West Indies, and Currency Act, where money is obtained through regulated trade only. The Navigation Acts made colonial manufacturing hard to succeed, created hatred against England, and got England lots of money.
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The Proclamation of 1763

After the French and Indian War, Pontiac led the Natives into a war against England, known as Pontiac's Rebellion. Although England won, the King owed many debts from both wars. King George III didn't want to lose anymore money in costly wars against Native Americans, so he enforced the Proclamation of 1763, where the colonists couldn't settle west of Appalachian Mountains. This made the colonists furious because they wanted to settle on the land they fought for in the French and Indian War (Ohio River Valley), and they didn't want English soldiers living with them. Their anger added on to the current resentment of England.
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Stamp Act 1765

Parliament passed the Stamp Act, a tax on paper goods, which required colonists to get a stamp on every paper product in the colonies. Samuel Adams started the Committees of Correspondence, groups that wrote letters to other colonies about the dealing with British taxes, and the Sons of Liberty, men that protested English policies. A lot of colonists boycotted paper items, and instead, made substitutes. Stamp Act Congress, a congress of 9 colonies, decided that only colonial governments should establish taxes, so they send a letter to King George III in hopes that the King repeals the act. The King repealed the Stamp Act, but passed the Declaratory Act, which said that Parliament had full control over legislation in the colonies.
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Quartering Act 1765

After the Stamp Act protests, England send royal troops to the colonies to keep an eye on the colonists. Not only that, Parliament decided to approve the Quartering Act, which had colonists provide care for the soldiers. This saved the King money, but the colonists were unhappy with this act. The writs of assistance, soldiers with blank search warrants, were always looking for smuggled items in their homes, which made colonists feel like they had no rights over their property. Caring for the soldiers was costly, but soldiers, in return, protected colonists from Native attacks. Colonists were really annoyed when soldiers started taking jobs at a lower wage, which increased the bitterness between the 13 Colonies and England.
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Townshend Acts 1767

Parliament accepted the Townshend Acts, which taxed imported everyday goods such as

tea, glass, paper, and paintings in the colonies. This made the colonists pay high expenses due to the soldiers. Colonists boycotted the goods, and the Daughters of Liberty made their own cloth instead of buying the taxed, imported English cloth. After all the protests, Parliament decided to repeal most of the taxes, except the tax on tea to show they still had power. The Sons of Liberty used violence to protest by attacking the English officials and colonial tax collectors' homes. Outrage continued to grow against England as more troops were sent to protect the officials.

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Boston Massacre 1770

In the Boston Massacre, colonists got in a fight with the English troops, and the soldiers shot at protesting colonists, which resulted in 5 casualties. This event was caused due to the anger of the colonists from prior actions England did. Samuel Adams used the Boston Massacre as anti-English propaganda and through the Committees of Correspondence, he shared the news about what happened in Boston. John Adams represented the English soldiers to show that the colonists' judicial system was so important, which was the biggest contribution that he did. The colonists' anger only grew against the English government.
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Tea Act 1773

Parliament passed the Tea Act, which made British East India Company the only company that can sell tea to the 13 Colonies. This gave the company control over the colonies' tea trade. The cost of the tea was actually cheaper, but colonists still fought and protested since they were forced to pay import taxes to England. Merchants in the colonies refused to remove tea from English ships or sell tea to dodge the payment of import taxes. The Daughters of Liberty made their own homemade tea to protest the Tea Act. The colonists were so irritated with Parliament for passing all these acts.
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Boston Tea Party 1773

The Boston Tea Party was a protest of the Tea Act run by the Sons of Liberty in Boston. The colonists were upset about the Tea Act, so the Sons of Liberty took action by dressing up as Native Americans and illegally boarding the English ships full of tea. They then dumped 342 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor!

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Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) 1774

Parliament punished colonists in Boston for the Boston Tea Party by passing the Coercive Acts, otherwise known to the colonists as the Intolerable Acts. These acts were made to make the colonists pay for tea they dumped and to prevent colonists from planning more attacks; they were made to restrict rights of Boston and give Britain control of Boston. Trade stopped between Boston and Britain, colonial assemblies were prohibited, and reinforced the Quartering Act. The Boston port was closed, which affected all the colonies economically, so the other colonies brought in goods to help support them. This whipped up revolutionary spirit throughout the 13 Colonies.

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1st Continental Congress 1774

The 1st Continental Congress consisted of representatives from the 13 Colonies, who send a letter to King George III filled with complaints about all the acts and the controlling of the 13 Colonies. The colonists were asking for peace, and if the King didn't back off, the 13 Colonies were going to take action. They were tired of all these acts and the controlled colonies; they wanted independence. This was the last chance England got before the American Revolution started.
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