The Cold War
A Brief Summary of The Cold War
- U.S President from 1945-1953
- Delivered the Truman Doctrine in 1947, beginning the Cold War
Josef Stalin -
- Leader of the Soviet Union from 1927-1953
- Attempted to seize control of Berlin in 1948 and began the Berlin Blockade, to try and take West Berlin to go with the East he already controlled.
Fidel Castro -
- Dictator of Cuba from 1960-2007
- Led a revolutionary movement in Cuba in the late 1950's.
- Allied himself with Nikita Khrushchev of USSR in 1960.
Dwight D. Eisenhower-
- U.S President from 1953-1961
- WWII hero and former commander of NATO
- Resolved the Suez Crisis
- Leader of China 1949-1976
- Initiated the Great Leap Forward in China that propelled China to Communism through heavy industry,
John F. Kennedy-
- U.S. President from 1961-1963
- Ordered no air support in the Bay of Pigs Invasion and caused a defeat of the Cuban exiles, which ultimately led to the Cuban Missile Crisis.
- President during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the closest the world has ever come to nuclear war. Known for resolving the crisis with Nikita Khrushchev, leader of USSR.
- Leader of Soviet Union from 1956-1964
- Found United States U-2 Spy Planes in 1960, which began the U-2 Spy Plane Incident
- Stored Soviet missiles in Cuba in 1962, causing the Cuban Missile Crisis.
- U.S. President from 1981-1989
- Proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in other to respond to possible nuclear attacks
- Asked mister Gorbachev to " TEAR DOWN (Berlin) WALL!"
- Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985-1991
- Was asked to " TEAR DOWN (Berlin) WALL!" in 1989
- Introduced new reforms to the Soviet Union, such as glasnost
- Opened the Berlin wall on November 9,1989
Important Terms and Definitions
Communism – A form of government where every citizen is made equal. (Soviet Union)
Democracy – A form of government in which every citizen has the right to make their own money, have freedom and speech, and other simple freedoms. (United States)
NATO – The pact between the United States and their allies to defend themselves from Soviet Attack.
Warsaw Pact – The alliance between the Soviet Union and its allies as a direct response to NATO.
HUAC/HISC - Foundation led by Joseph McCarthy that searched for Communists in the United States and caused the “Red Scare.”
The Space Race – Competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to get to the moon, with the United States winning.
U-2 Spy Plane – A stealth aircraft used to survey areas without easy detection.
Brigade 2506 – The group of Cuban exiles hired by the CIA to invade Cuba for the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
SALT I & II – Treaties between the U.S. and USSR to limit the amount of missiles allowed during the Cold War
Black September – The terrorist group responsible for the attack on the Israel Olympic team in the 1972
Strategic Defense Initiative – The defense system proposed by Ronald Reagan that involved surveillance, weapons and support programs based in space.
Great Leap Forward – The jump-start to Communism in China led by Mao Zedong.
Glasnost – A policy created by Mikhail Gorbachev that included freedom of speech, and information and free elections in the Soviet Union in the late 1980’s.
Chernobyl – The location of a power plant in the Ukraine that suffered a severe nuclear meltdown.
Important Events of the Time
- Truman tells world the U.S. will help any country about to go under the control of communism.
- Soviet Union Doesn't respond well to this
- This starts the cold war
- NATO was created in 1949, it united the democratic countries against a possible communist attack
- The Soviet Union creates the Warsaw pact in 1955 in response to NATO, it united all the Communist countries
- Countries started to leave the Warsaw pact after the Soviet Union took control in 1958
- The Warsaw pact ended in 1991 while NATO is still around today
- Plan was proposed by U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall
- Gave money to countries that needed to rebuild after WWII
- Countries that were given money had to promise not to turn Communist
The Building of the Berlin Wall-
- Germany and Berlin where divided between the Allied Powers after WWII
- West Berlin belonged to the US, Great Britain, and France, and East Berlin belonged to the Soviet Union
- The construction of the wall began on August 13 1981
- The Wall was built to prevent East German to escape into West Germany
Cuban Missile Crisis-
- Thirteen days in October where the world came closest to nuclear war
- United States Spy Plane spots Soviet missiles in Cuba in summer of 1962
- Matter is resolved by letters sent from John F. Kennedy to Nikita Khrushchev and vice-versa, as well as an emergency telephone hotline between them
- A political agreement, not a treaty, which opened July 3, 1973
- Composed of four baskets
- Jimmy Carter wrote a letter to the International Olympics Committee to change the location or cancel the 1980 Olympics
- There was a 2:1 margin vote to boycott the Olympics
- Out of the 145 countries eligible to participate, only 81 did( United States did not attend)
- Boycott was led Soviet Union
- Romania was the only Warsaw pact country to compete
- The competition was unbalanced, with the USA winning 175 medals and West Germany winning 59
Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster-
- Nuclear reactor meltdown takes place in 1986 in Chernobyl, Ukraine
- Soviet Union keeps the disaster secret until a plane spots it
- Soviet Union denies any help from countries after the truth is out
- 250,000 in the surrounding area are evacuated.
Fall of the Berlin Wall-
- Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on June 12, 1987 at the Berlin Wall, challenging Mikhail Gorbachev to “tear down this wall!” to reunite Eastern and Western Germany.
- The wall begins to come down November 9, 1989
- German Unification signified by the complete destruction of the wall on October 3, 1990