Breast Cancer

Prashil Dulal

What is Breast Cancer?

"Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too." (Breast Cancer; American Cancer Society)

Treatment of Breast Cancer

1. Breast Cancer Surgery

2. Radiation Therapy

3. Chemotherapy

4. Hormone Therapy

5. Targeted Drugs

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Population Affected

  • "About 1 in 8 U.S. women (about 12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.
  • In 2014, an estimated 232,670 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S., along with 62,570 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer.
  • About 2,360 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in men in 2014. A man’s lifetime risk of breast cancer is about 1 in 1,000.
  • Breast cancer incidence rates in the U.S. began decreasing in the year 2000, after increasing for the previous two decades. They dropped by 7% from 2002 to 2003 alone. One theory is that this decrease was partially due to the reduced use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by women after the results of a large study called the Women’s Health Initiative were published in 2002. These results suggested a connection between HRT and increased breast cancer risk.
  • About 40,000 women in the U.S. were expected to die in 2014 from breast cancer, though death rates have been decreasing since 1989 — with larger decreases in women under 50. These decreases are thought to be the result of treatment advances, earlier detection through screening, and increased awareness.
  • For women in the U.S., breast cancer death rates are higher than those for any other cancer, besides lung cancer.
  • Besides skin cancer, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women. Just under 30% of cancers in women are breast cancers.
  • White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women. However, in women under 45, breast cancer is more common in African-American women than white women. Overall, African-American women are more likely to die of breast cancer. Asian, Hispanic, and Native-American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.
  • In 2014, there were more than 2.8 million women with a history of breast cancer in the U.S. This includes women currently being treated and women who have finished treatment.
  • A woman’s risk of breast cancer approximately doubles if she has a first-degree relative (mother, sister, daughter) who has been diagnosed with breast cancer. About 15% of women who get breast cancer have a family member diagnosed with it.
  • About 5-10% of breast cancers can be linked to gene mutations (abnormal changes) inherited from one’s mother or father. Mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most common. Women with a BRCA1 mutation have a 55-65% risk of developing breast cancer before age 70, and often at a younger age that it typically develops. For women with a BRCA2 mutation, this risk is 45%. An increased ovarian cancer risk is also associated with these genetic mutations. In men, BRCA2 mutations are associated with a lifetime breast cancer risk of about 6%; BRCA1 mutations are a less frequent cause of breast cancer in men.
  • About 85% of breast cancers occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer. These occur due to genetic mutations that happen as a result of the aging process and life in general, rather than inherited mutations.
  • The most significant risk factors for breast cancer are gender (being a woman) and age (growing older)." (U.S. Breast Cancer Statistics; Breast Cancer)
  • Citations

    "Breast Cancer." American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society Inc., Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-what-is-breast-cancer>.

    "Breast Cancer." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/basics/definition/con-20029275>.

    Breast Cancer. Tazablog. Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://www.tazablog.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/brest-cancer.jpg>.

    Top 5 Causes of Breast Cancer on Career Women. Visually. Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://thumbnails-visually.netdna-ssl.com/top-5-causes-of-breast-cancer_52e7768a12da5_w1500.jpg>.

    Symptoms of Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer in India. Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://breastcancerinindia.com/images/symptoms-of-Breast-Cancer.jpg>.

    "What Does Prognosis Mean?." Breast Cancer. Breastcancer.org, Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/diagnosis/prognosis>.

    "U.S. Breast Cancer Statistics." Breast Cancer. Breastcancer.org, 20 Sept. 2014. Web. 5 Dec. 2014. <http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics>.