Controversy In The Balkan Peninsula

By: Justice Buford, Maddie Hood, and Brittan Bresnahan

What Is The Balkan Peninsula?

Balkan Peninsula

•Is a region of southeastern Europe.

•Geopolitical and Cultural

•Linguistically also

•Christian

•Highly Mountainous

•The Balkan are "States"

Why is there so much conflict in this region?

The conflicts in the Balkans happened because new nations were emerging out of nowhere, and because of the fall of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary Empire which happened almost about the same time.The remaining nations kept fighting for that land and wanted control over the Balkan Peninsula. Also Yugoslavia was full with different types of religions and i think this led to them fighting about who or what was the best person to worship.


Fall of Yugoslavia (Tito) and the rise of Milosevic?

Check Out This Virtual Timeline http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Breakup_of_Yugoslavia-TRY2.gif


Fall Of Yugoslavia

The country split up in the 1990s into several independent countries. These eight federal units were the six republics Slovenia , Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. Also two other regions within Serbia,Vojvodina and Kosovo. This happened mainly because of ethnicity problem in the area together. However Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia kept fighting and that led to the Yugoslav War, which caused Yugoslav to fall. This fighting also crashed the Yugoslav economy.





Rise of Milosevic- Great Timeline from http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2001-06-29/news/0106290334_1_milosevic-kosovo-yugoslavia


Aug. 20, 1941: Born in Pozarevac, in central Serbia.


1964-: Graduates from Belgrade Law School, joins the Communist Party.

1984-: Appointed party leader in Belgrade by his friend, Ivan Stambolic, head of the Serbian Communist Party.

1986: Succeeds Stambolic as party boss after Stambolic is elevated to president of Serbia.

April 1987: Delivers speech in Kosovo to Serbs demanding protection from ethnic Albanian majority in province. Speech catapults Milosevic to prominence.

September 1987: Accuses Stambolic and others of anti-communist and anti-Serbian policies, forcing the officials' resignations.

1989: Milosevic becomes president of Serbia, strips Kosovo of autonomy. More than 20 killed in protests.

1990: Yugoslavia sends troops to Kosovo to impose control. Serbia dissolves Kosovo's government.

1991: Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from Yugoslavia. Milosevic encourages Serbs in Croatia to take up arms.

1992: Bosnia-Herzegovina declares its independence. Milosevic bankrolls Bosnian Serb rebellion.

1995: Agrees to settlement of Bosnian war at U.S.-sponsored peace talks in Dayton, Ohio, with presidents of Croatia and Bosnia. NATO authorizes deploying 60,000 troops.

November-December 1996: Milosevic allies win elections for federal parliament, but opposition coalition appears to win runoffs in most local elections. Milosevic-controlled electoral commissions annul local elections, provoking nightly rallies that reach 250,000 people. Violence breaks out with dozens injured and at least one killed.

January 1997: Milosevic concedes defeat and allows opposition to take control of several cities.

July 1997: Prevented by constitution from seeking re-election, Milosevic has parliament name him president of Yugoslavia, comprising only the republics of Serbia and Montenegro.

February 1998: Sends troops to crush new ethnic Albanian uprising in Kosovo.

September 1998: U.N. Security Council adopts resolution calling for immediate cease-fire and political dialogue.

October 1998: NATO allies authorize airstrikes against Serb military targets. Milosevic agrees to withdraw troops, allow return of refugees and 2,000 unarmed monitors to verify compliance. Attacks continue.

March 1999: Kosovar Albanians sign peace agreement calling for broad interim autonomy and 28,000 NATO troops. Serb delegation refuses; talks suspended.

March 24, 1999: NATO airstrikes begin.

May 1999: Milosevic and four subordinates indicted by U.N. war crimes tribunal on charges of crimes against humanity -- murder, deportation and persecutions -- and violations of the laws and customs of war.


What was the world’s response?

All of these events and conflict were happening during WW1 and many countries could help very little because they were tying to defend themselves. However the U.N. did try to help by stationing troops in Yugoslavia, but that did not stop the people of Serbia from attacking them. Serbia mainly attacked Bosnia and Croatia. Despite the efforts of the U.N. they never could really help all the issues going on in these regions.

What are the current conditions there?

The current conditions there are improving. They still have some anger against each other and sometimes little conflicts occur, but all they all are trying to grow and thrive to improve. Some of them are trying to join the EU.

How did Milosevic’s reign end as well?

Milosevic was a Serbian and Yugoslavia politician who was the President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997. He also became the President of the Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000. Many people in Yugoslavia believed that he was a terrible president and wanted him removed. Milosevic resigned on 24 September 2000. Milosevic was arrested by Yugoslav federal authorities on Saturday, 31 March 2001, for suspicion of corruption and abuse of power. Milosevic had a five-year long trial. It ended without a verdict on 11 March 2006 when he died in his prison cell in The Hague because of a heart attack.


This video is very emotional but it helps show what Nato did to Yugoslavia

NATO's War Against Yugoslavia

The First Balkan War 1913-1912

First Balkan War - 1912-1913 - The First Balkan War was started by an alliance made up of Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, and Montenegro. March 3,1912, Serbia and Bulgaria signed a treaty. Grouped northern Macedonia to Serbia, and Southern Macedonia to Bulgaria.The two also considered war against Austria and Turkey if Austria destroyed any of the rules. In May 1912, Greece and Bulgaria signed a similar treaty making use of military actions against Turkey. The treaty with Serbia concluded September 1912.On October 8, 1912, Montenegro declared war against the Turks, and 10 days later the allies entered the war. After Turkey was almost defeated Albania, Epirus, Macedonia and Thrace controlled all of the Balkan States. Also Serbia had reached the Adriatic at Durazzo. THis gave them a very vital sea port to use. Austria and Italy disliked this situation because they feared that a Serbian port on the Adriatic would most likely become a Russian port. Also,Austria and Italy could not allow this because it would pose a major threat to the Habsburg Monarchy. When fighting was taking place at Adrianople, Scutari, and Janina, the armistice was signed. Also a peace conference met at London in December, 1912. The war resumed in Spring of 1913. When Adrianople, Scutari and Janina fell, the fighting ended. The Treaty of London ended the First Balkan War on May 30, 1913. Turkey got rid of all possessions in Europe to the allies west of a line from Enos on the Aegean Sea to Midia on the Black Sea. The only exception to that was Albania. The Great Powers began to draw the lines of a new Albanian State. Crete was united with Greece. The Aegean islands were left to the Great Powers.

The First Balkan War Pictures

First Balkan War Video

The video is 6 minutes long but you can skip part of the beginning to get to the main points about the war.
The First Balkan war breaks out in 1912 - Greece, Montenegro, Serbia and Bulgaria.

The Second Balkan War 1913

What Happened?

The Second Balkan War began when Serbia, Greece, and Romania were with Bulgari They were arguing over the division from their conquests in Macedonia. On June 1, 1913, Serbia and Greece formed an alliance against Bulgaria. The war began on June 29/30, 1913 at night. It began when King Ferdinand, the king of Bulgaria ordered his troops to attack Serbian and Greek location in Macedonia.However the Bulgarians were defeated. They signed a peace treaty on Aug. 10, 1913. The treaty said that Greece and Serbia divided up most of Macedonia between themselves. This left Bulgaria with only a small part of the region. Because of the Balkan Wars, Greece obtained southern Macedonia and the island of Crete. Serbia gained the region called Kosovo and extended their empire into northern and central Macedonia. Albania became an independent state under rule by a German prince. Bulgaria was made in Macedonia and, looked to Austria for support. Serbia, which had been forced by Austria to give up its Albanian conquests, regarded Vienna with greater hostility than ever.

Second Balkan War

These People Keep On Fighting And I Am Not Doing All Of These Wars. Just The Major Ones

If you are interested in this topic watch this documentary at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoENyMTmYG4

Balkan War Timeline

The Balkan Wars

Religion

In the 20th century, the Balkan peninsula had suffered from major internal wars, two world wars, of which the first one was actually was caused in the area, and caused numerous other conflicts.The dominating religious denomination on the Peninsula is Orthodox Christianity, followed by Islam, Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Unitarianism, Armenian Orthodoxy and Judaism..

Greeks, Turks, Bulgarians, Albanians, Serbs, Croats, Hungarians, Romanians – these are eight nations feel that they had become a victim of the historical injury.

They also felt they didn’t profit enough territory and receive its due respect. The effect from the combination of political leaders using those feelings, and from appropriate historical circumstances, can easily lead to the spark of conflict in “Europe’s ammunition dump”, is what some people call ed the Balkans. Sadly but true, the term “Balkanization”, deriving from the name of the Peninsula, refers exactly to the process of fragmentation of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other.


Bibliography

Essential Question-How Would The Society And Culture Of The Balkan Peninsula Be Different If the War Had Never Occurred?