Long term effects of exercise

Cardiovascular, respiratory, muscularskeletal, Energy system

Cardiovascular System

An effect on the Cardiovascular System is that the cardiac muscle surrounding the heart hypertrophies, resulting in thicker, stronger walls and therefore increases in heart volumes. Your resting hear rate also decreases because the consistence of regular exercise require so much work from the cardiovascular system, inactive periods become even easier for the heart. The heart eventually becomes more efficient, and no longer needs to beat as quickly to supply the body with blood while at rest. Your Stroke volume increases at rest so therefor yourResting heart rate is able to slow down because the heart is now trained to pump a larger quantity of blood with every beat. anpther thing is your bodys Improved circulation. In response to the need to supply the muscles with more oxygen during exercise, the body increases its number of capillaries, the smallest blood vessels in the body, you capillaries also open wider. Blood pressure decreases by up to 10 mmHg. An mm Hg is a unit used for measuring pressure levels.your bodies Blood volume also increases. The body produces a greater number of red blood cells in order to keep the muscles supplied with oxygen during heavy exercise.

Respiratory System

The respiratory muscles (Diaphragm/intercostals) increase in strength. This results in larger respiratory volumes, which allows more Oxygen to be diffused into the blood flow.An increase in the number and diameter of capillaries surrounding the alveoli leads to an increase in the efficiency of gaseous exchanges. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in your body. Oxygen seeps out of thin capillary walls as carbon dioxide seeps in during respiration. Exercise stimulates vasodilation, which increases the diameter of blood vessels in your body, including the capillaries. Your body adapts to long-term exercise by increasing the size and number of capillaries, including alveolar capillaries. This adaptation makes the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen more efficient.The skeletal muscles that control respiration include your diaphragm and intercostals. Your diaphragm is a broad band of muscle that sits under your lungs and forms the base of a region known as the thoracic cavity by attaching to the lower parts of your ribs, sternum and spine. The intercostals form the muscle tissue in between individual ribs. The long-term effect of exercise is to build the endurance of these respiratory muscles, allowing deeper, fuller and more efficient breaths.

Muscularskeletal System

There will be an increased blood flow around our veins and arteries which is important to feed our muscles with oxygenated blood. This is done by an increased heart rate, our heart rate will increase the faster and harder that we work. Our metabolic rate is increased as the body's need for energy is increased and our body starts to become more efficient. There will be an increased muscle tone an muscle mass the muscles tear and rebuild themselves. There will be increased bone density and a postural imrovement. By doing a long term exercise plan will have a direct and positive effect on preventing or reducing musculoskeletal injury and degenerative disorders. Also it can have a positive effect on our mental health as it is scientifically proven to reduce stress and give us an overall feeling of well being.

Energy System

Aerobic & anaerobic enzymes Increases in size and number of mitochondria are used by increases in the enzymes that work inside to increase the production of aerobic energy.These changes explain increased performances in aerobic exercise. The same can be said of enzymes that help produce energy within the Lactic acid system when glucose is being broken down. Fat is a main source of energy during low intensity exercise. When glycogen stores are all used up during long periods of exercise the use of fat as a fuel increases. Trained athletes can use a greater amount of fat as a fuel compared to non-athletes which can help in preserving glycogen stores for a longer period of time.Glycogen stores increase within the muscles cell and can then lead to increased duration and speed of a persons performance.