by Emma, Lauren, and Alex


The crusades were a series of holy wars fought by the Eastern Europeans and the Muslims. These religious wars started in 1095 with the overall goal of recapturing the Holy Lands, such as Jerusalem. As the crusades progressed, the goal increased to also seizing small areas in Eastern Europe and islands in the Mediterranean.
Medieval Europe and the Crusades, Christianity and Islam

Types of Crusades

There was a total of 9 crusades, but only the first 4 are considered major crusades.

The first crusade was also known as the “people's crusade”. It lasted from 1095 to 1099 and was focused on freeing the Holy Lands. Led by Count Raymond IV of Toulouse, the Christian Crusaders were able to take back Jerusalem and accomplish their goal.

The second crusade was led by the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and by King Louis VII of France. This crusade ended in failure due to a lack of communication and forced the crusaders to return home.

The third crusade was led by Richard the Lionheart. He was on a quest to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims who were led by Saladin. However, Richard was soon out of healthy soldiers and fell ill himself. He knew he would never be able to capture the Holy City, so he made a truce with Saladin instead. Neither side was happy about making an agreement but it was decided that pilgrims from the west would once again be allowed to visit Jerusalem without being troubled by the Muslims and the crusaders would return home.

The fourth crusade was the last of the major crusades and failed in recovering the city of Jerusalem. Instead the crusaders attacked Constantinople and never reached the Holy City.

Effect of The Crusades

The crusades gave a lot of power to the Church. This allowed the Pope to declare crusades and decide the future of Christianity.

Through the crusades, many new foods were discovered such as spices and new household goods were also acquired. New ideas, such as irrigation systems, also developed from the crusades. It also increased the power of Catholic Church and Papacy. Politically it broke down the government and gave more power to the kings and people. Various arts, manufactures, and inventions were brought from Asia to Europe. Also, it enhanced trade routes throughout Europe and Asia.

Essential Question

How did The Crusades affect the development of Europe?