Seven Principles of Government
A government in which the people rule. A good example of Popular Sovereignty from the Constitution is the Preamble, the first phrase in the Constitution beginning with "We the People".
People exercise their power as a U.S. citizen by voting for their political representatives. A good example of this in the Constitution is Article 4, Section 4 and a good example in the real-world is to elect a congressman/woman to voice out local opinions to the President and even out in Congress, and eventually to elect a President.
When power is divided between a central government and smaller political units, like states. A good example from the Constitution is the overall structure of it. For example, the President is in charge of the country, a Governor is in charge of the state, a Mayor is in charge of the city, and Congress has many divisions and units within to keep charge of districts within each state.
Separation of Powers
The division of basic government roles into branches, such as the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. A good example of this in the Constitution is Articles 1, 2, and 3. Congress passes laws, the President approves them, and the Judicial Branch enforces them and gives punishments if the laws are disobeyed.
Checks and Balances
Each branch of government can exercise controls over the other branches, so what gets proposed in the legislative branch has to be approved by the executive branch and judicial branch. A good example of this in the Constitution is within the similarities of Articles 1, 2, and 3. A great example in real life is when a law may get passed by Congress, signed by the President, and then the Judicial Branch may find the law "unconstitutional", or the Legislative Branch (Congress) may pass a law, the Judicial Branch may approve the law, but then the Executive Branch (President) may veto the law.
Citizens and leaders must obey the same laws/rules, with no exceptions. Those in government have the same limited powers. An example of this from the Constitution is Article 1, Sections 9 and 10. A president has to follow the same rules as an average citizen, and if they don't satisfy the people and Congress, they can be impeached out of office.
Everyone is granted certain individual rights, personal liberties, and privileges. A good example of this from the Constitution is the Bill of Rights (first 10 amendments) and a good phrase for this could be "unalienable rights". You have the freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, and the right to bear arms.