The War of 1812

First Cause: Impressment

In 1803, Britain and France went to war again. America wanted trade with both Britain and France. America also declared neutrality. Britain nor France accepted it. The cause of impressment was the Chesapeake Affair. A british warship tried to capture an American warship called the Chesapeake in 1807. When the Chesapeake resisted, the British kidnapped sailors. A lot of Americans were furious and wanted war.

Second Cause: Economic Problems-Embargo of 1807

Jefferson proposed the Embargo Act to avoid war. The "Damn-bargo" or Embargo Act of 1807 was made to stop ALL trade between America and Europe. The good thing about this was that it kept American ships safe and it definitely avoided war but the bad thing was that if there's no trade with Europe, the American economy suffers. In 1808, Jefferson didn't want to be President so there was an election and James Madison won. Madison declared the Non-Intercourse Act which restored trade with all of Europe EXCEPT Britain and France. This didn't change the suffering of the American economy and many Americans still wanted war.
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Third Cause: "War Hawks" Elected

The "War Hawks" were congressmen from the South and West that were elected in 1810. They also wanted war against Britain. Britain had damaged the War Hawks' trade with Europe which was called Southern Anger while the War Hawks blamed Britain for the Indian attacks on their frontier. This was called Western Anger. Henry Clay was a notable War Hawk who later proposed a new economic system for America and also developed many compromises to prevent civil war. Another notable War Hawk was John C. Calhoun who became future Vice President under Andrew Jackson as President.
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Fourth Cause: Native American Attacks

The Treaty of Greenville was violated by Americans while they moved into Indian land. At the western forts, British troops were armed with Indians, ready to attack Americans. There was one Native American named, "Tecumseh" who began recruiting and uniting tribes to protect the Natives' land but there was a battle at Tippecanoe where William Henry Harrison led troops against Indians, crushing Tecumseh's movement. The battle made Tecumseh flee to British owned Canada confirming that Britain could aid Indians.
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FIghting On The Canadian Border

American and British navies fought on the Great Lakes while Americans burned the city of York which is now called Toronto. The British tried to invade New York and New England where Federalists were at but failed at invading. If they succeeded invading, North and possibly the entire war would have been lost. Americans tried to invade three locations in Canada but failed also. It was a stalemate when they fought on the border.

Battle of Baltimore

When the British navy tried to attack Baltimore, they were stopped at Fort McHenry which made the British ships retreat and the Chesapeake area was saved. This battle inspired Francis Scott Key to write the "Star Spangled Banner" and that became the national Anthem.
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Four Effects of the War on 1812:

1) The Treaty of Ghent was made which established peace, returned all territories to original owners, ended the war with a truce, and made Americans view this as a "Second War of Independence."

2) Factories grew and America depended less on British manufacturing.

3) William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson became heroes and Federalists looked unpatriotic after the Hartford Convention.

4) America gained International respect and became a world power

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