What it is
The process by which living cells manufacture proteins from their constituent amino acids, in accordance with the genetic information carried in the DNA of the chromosomes. This information is encoded in messenger RNA, which is transcribed from DNA in the nucleus of the cell: the sequence of amino acids in a particular protein is determined by the sequence of nucleotides in messenger RNA. At the ribosomes the information carried by messenger RNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids of the protein in the process of translation.
Process of protein synthesis
2. mRNA goes out of the nucleus and goes to the ribosome.
3. mRNA in the ribosome attracts the tRNA (which itself attracts amino acids).
4. The combination of both mRNA and tRNA causes the codon in the mRNA to meet its anticodon in the tRNA. This is successively done, leading to the lengthening of the Amino Acid chain.
5. After the Stop codon, the Amino Acid chain is cleaved into the cytoplasm and is not called a Protein.
The central dogma
Transcription of DNA to RNA to protein: This dogma forms the backbone of molecular biology and is represented by four major stages.