Research on Recombinant DNA

what is RNA?

Recombinant DNA is a form of synthetic dna that is engineered through the combination or insertion of one or more dna strands, thereby combining dna sequences that would not normally occur together.

plasmid:

a plasmid is a small, circular, double stranded dna molecule that is distinct from a cells chromosomal dna.

How rDNA is created

Recombinant DNA is the term used to describe the combination of two strands that are constructed artificially. Genetic scientists can do this to create unique DNA strands for different purposes using several types of techniques.


rDNA is a synthetic type of nucleic acid created by linking DNA sequences together that wouldn't exist under natural circumstances. this process of making rDNA is called gene cloning. rDNA is put into a cell, which then produces a completely new protein and is used to combine drugs, antibiotics, or specific proteins for research only.


DNA from a donor organism or biological source is first removed and cut up. This cutting process is called enzymatic restriction. this creates small pieces of DNA that contain the genes needed. These pieces then can be replicated, cloned, or stuck onto pieces from the recipient organism. Next, they are inserted into larger DNA molecules called plasmas, which are put into bacteria and can multiply. the rDNA is then recovered and verified.


The process of transformation or heat shock is used to put the rDNA molecule into a host bacterial cell, which then make many copies of the synthetic DNA. These bacteria are grown on agar plates, made up in special bacterial broths, and then "lysed" in order to release the recombinant DNA. lastly, the DNA can be verified by DNA sequencing, functional experiments, and restriction enzyme digestion.


Ligation is the process of sticking or joining together the donor and recipient DNA fragments to create a recombinant DNA molecule. ideally the restriction enzymes chosen to create the fragments would have been very carefully thought out and designed such that they allow these bits to be put together like a jigsaw puzzle. to do this, restriction enzymes that produce compatible "sticky ends" are preferred such that all compatible fragments will naturally join with each other. Otherwise the DNA ligase enzyme can be used to join the DNA segments with phospsphodiester linkages.

application of rDNA technologies

RDAN technologies are important because they have made an impact on better crops used for many different purposes in research, medicine,agriculture, and industry. These advancements have made an improvement in society.

Controversey

in the 1970's there was debates and controversy over whether it was "safe" to use rDNA. I think it is safe but isn't a good idea to clone or copy things.

transgenetic animal

Transgenic animals are animals that have had a foreign gene deliberately inserted into their genome. the first kind available to the public is a Glo-fish. it is related to rDNA because scientists add foreign dna to the fish.
Recombinant DNA Technology | Genetics | Biology