The Outdoors

By Kate


Did you know that earthworms breathe through their skin? Did you also know that they are both male and female, therefore they produce both eggs and sperm? I know crazy right! Earthworms are some very interesting creatures. Plus our environment benefits from them. They help increase the amount of air and water that gets into the soil. They also break down organic matter into things that plants can use. So next time thank a little feller!
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Vascular Plants

Vascular plants contain xylem and phloem. Xylem helps water go up, while phloem helps water and nutrients go both ways. Vascular plants include some seedless plants like ferns, flowering, and nonflowering plants. Below are different vascular plants.


Sporophyte is a plant structure that makes spores. A spore is a single reproductive cell that can grow into a new organism, they are haploid meaning they have one set of chromosomes. Spores are light and easily transported by wind. They grow into gametophyres. Examples are moss and fern. Below are pictures of some.


Fungi have a cell wall made of chitin. Fungi usually have white threads and are heterotrophs. Mushrooms are produced by fungi when reproducing. Below are different pictures of fungi.


Gymnosperms are nonflowering plants the reproduce sexually by means of a seed not encased in fruit. Most reproduce with cones. Male cones contain pollen, while females cones contain eggs.
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Non-Vascular Plants

Non-vascular plants are small and use capillary action to get water. Examples include mosses and hornworts.
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Angiosperms are flowering plants. Petals surround the reproductive structure. Stamen is the male part which produces pollen, while the pistil is the female part which carries the sperm to the egg.

More Pictures!