Religions

By: Macy Wise

Christianity

-Christianity developed out of Judaism in the 1st century, it is founded on the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, and those who follow him are called "Christians"

-Christianity has many different branches and forms with accompanying variety in beliefs and practices

-The three major branches of Christianity are Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism, with numerous subcategories within each of these branches

-Traditional Christian beliefs are the belief in the one and only true God, who is one being and exists as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and the belief that Jesus is the human Messiah sent to the save the world

-Christianity is also noted for its emphasis on faith in Christ as the primary component of religion

-The sacred text of Christianity is the Bible, including both the Old Testament and the New Testament

-Central to Christian practice is the gathering at churches for worship, fellowship, and study, and engagement with the world through evangelism and social action

-Its a monotheistic religion

-Major holidays include, Easter and Christmas


What is Christianity?

Buddhism

-2,500 years ago, an Indian prince, Siddhartha Gautama, sat in a place known as Deer Park at Sarnath and began to offer simple teachings, based on his own experience

-These teachings, referred to as the dharma, meaning simply "truth," were instructions on how to free oneself from suffering by relating to the everyday experience of life and mind

-Because his realization was liked, he became known as the Buddha, which means "the awakened one"

-The teachings he offered are known as the buddhadharma, and these form the center of Buddhism still today

-The Buddhist teachings proclaim the possibility of awakening wisdom and compassion within every human being, and they provide an easy method for doing so

-This method, passed down from generation to generation, consists of meditation that develops mindfulness and awareness

-Buddhist is a living tradition, passed from teacher to student, as a set of instructions and techniques for changing sanity and brilliance in ourselves and our world

-Its ancient wisdom is as relevant and useful today as over the centuries of its long history

-Buddhism is a monotheistic religion

-Major holidays include: Uposatha, Makha Bucha, Vesakha, Asalha Puja Day, Kathina Ceremony, and Sanghamitta Day

Buddhism - Introduction

Islam

-Islam is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God and by the teachings and example of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God

-An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim

-Muslims believe that God is one and and the purpose of existence is to submit to and serve God

-Muslims also believe that Islam is the universal version of a faith that was shown at many times and places before, including through Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets

-Most Muslims are of two denominations, Sunni,or Shia

-With about 1.57 billion followers or 23% of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.

-There are two official holidays in Islam: Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha

-Eid Al-Fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan (a month of fasting), and Muslims usually give zakat (charity) on the occasion

-Eid Al-Adha is where Muslims usually sacrifice an animal and distribute its meat among family, friends and the poor


Islam, the Quran, and the Five Pillars All Without a Flamewar: Crash Course World History #13

Judaism

-Judaism is one of the oldest religions still existing today

-It began as the religion of the small nation of the Hebrews, and through thousands of years of suffering, persecution, dispersion, and occasional victory, has continued to be a profoundly influential religion and culture

-Today, 14 million people identify themselves as Jewish

-Modern Judaism is both a nation and a religion, and often combines strict ritual laws with a more liberal attitude towards religious belief

-It was the first monotheistic religion and is amongst the oldest of the world's religions

-The holidays include: Rosh HaShanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Shemini Atzeret, Simkhat Torah, Chanukah, Tu B'Shevat, Purim, Pesach (Passover), Yom Ha-Atzmaut, Pesach Sheni, Shavu'ot


What Is Judaism?

Hinduism

-Hinduism is the major religion of India, practiced by more than 80% of the population

-Hinduism has no founder

-Considered the oldest religion in the world,

-There is complete freedom of belief, and one can be monotheist, polytheist, or atheist

-The most ancient sacred texts of the Hindu religion are written in Sanskrit

-They introduce the doctrine of karma and recommend meditation and the practice of yoga

-According to Hindu beliefs, Brahman is the source of the universe

-Hinduism is based on the concept of reincarnation, where all living beings, from plants on earth to gods above, are caught in a cosmic cycle of becoming and perishing

-Life is determined by the law of karma—people are reborn to a higher level of existence based on moral behavior in an earlier phase of existence

-Life on earth is looked at as a burden

-The goal of existence is liberation from the cycle of rebirth and death and entrance into the indescribable state of moksha

-The practice of Hinduism consists of rites and ceremonies centering on birth, marriage, and death

-the most popular Hindu edit are the cults of Vishnu, Shiva, and Shakti, and their various incarnations

-Brahma is the creator god

-Hindus also venerate human saints



Crash Course Hinduism