Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt



The people of ancient Mesopotamia were polytheistic, that is, they believed in the existence of many gods. In designing these people, the gods could do good or bad things with humans.

The gods of the Mesopotamian religion represented the elements of nature (water, air, sun, earth, etc.).

Several cities had their own gods. Marduk, for example, was the god of Babylon city guard at the time of Hammurabi's reign. Depending on the field of this city of Mesopotamia, this god also became the most important in the whole region.

A goddess who has gained much importance in Mesopotamia was Ishtar. Naked was represented and symbolized the power of nature and fertility.

The Mesopotamians also believed in the existence of heroes, demons and jinn. They practiced divination and magic.

The Mesopotamians built ziggurats, species temples pyramids format, and believed that the gods lived in these buildings.

The Mesopotamians believed in life after death

Civilizations that developed in the Middle East, especially those of the fertile valleys of Mesopotamia, understanding surrounding the death and the care phenomenon with the dead was, as in many other ancient civilizations, linked to a complex polytheistic religious system. The main source we have of the conceptions of the heavenly world, underworld, gods and heroes of the Mesopotamian universe.


Religion in Ancient Egypt was marked by various beliefs, myths and symbolism. Religious practice was highly valued in Egyptian society, and the rituals and ceremonies occurred in several cities. The Egyptian religion had great influence in many areas of society.

Features of the Egyptian religion

The Egyptians were polytheistic (believed in many gods). According to these people, the gods had specific powers and acted in people's lives. There were gods who possessed the body composed of part human and part sacred animal. Anubis, for example, god of death, was represented jackal-headed a body of a human being.

The ancient Egyptians made rituals and offerings to the gods. It was a way to get please the gods, getting help in their lives.

In ancient Egypt there were several temples, which were built in honor of the gods. Each city had a patron god.

Another important feature of Egyptian religion was the belief in life after death. According to this belief, the dead Osiris was tried in court. The heart was heavy and, according to what he had done in life, receive a trial. For the good there was a kind of paradise for the negatives, Ammut devour the heart.

Why they mummified the dead

Because they believed in life after death. For them, the day the soul reincarnated again in the body, but the body was rotting, the spirit could no longer recognize his body and could not come back to life.

Igor de Castro Monteiro