Erikson's Theory

the eight stages of human development

The 8 stages

0–2 years|| Hopes || Basic Trust vs. Mistrust || Mother || Can I Trust the World? || Feeding, Abandonment


| 2–4 years || Will || Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt || Parents || Is It Okay To Be Me? || Toilet Training, Clothing Themselves


| 4–5 years || Purpose || Initiative vs. Guilt || Family || Is It Okay For Me To Do, Move and Act? || Exploring, Using Tools or Making Art


| 5–12 years || Competence || Industry vs. Inferiority || Neighbors, School || Can I Make It In The World Of People And Things? || School, Sports


| 13–19 years || Fidelity || Identity vs. Role Confusion || Peers, Role Model || Who Am I? What Can I Be? || Social Relationships


| 20–39 years || Love || Intimacy vs. Isolation || Friends, Partners || Can I Love? || Romantic Relationships


| 40–64 years || Care || Generativity vs. Stagnation ||Household, Workmates || Can I Make My Life Count? || Work, Parenthood


| 65-death || Wisdom || Ego Integrity vs. Despair || Mankind, My Kind || Is It Okay To Have Been Me? || Reflection on Life

  1. Basic trust vs. basic mistrust - 0-1 year of age, which is the most fundamental stage of life. - Whether or not the baby develops basic trust or basic mistrust is not merely a matter of nurture. It depends on the quality of the maternal relationship. If successful in this, the baby develops a sense of trust. Failure to develop this trust will result in fear in the baby and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
  2. Autonomy vs. Shame - 1–3 years old- Introduces the concept of autonomy vs. shame and doubt. During this stage the child is trying to master toilet training.
  3. Purpose - Initiative vs. Guilt - 3–6 years - If they feel "guilty" about making his or her own choices, the child will not function well.
  4. Competence - Industry vs. Inferiority - 6-11. Child comparing self-worth to others). Child can recognize major disparities in personal abilities relative to other children.
  5. Fidelity - Identity vs. Role Confusion -/ 12 -18. Questioning of self. Who am I, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life? If the parents allow the child to explore, they will conclude their own identity. However, if the parents continually push him/her to conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion.
  6. Intimacy vs. isolation - 18- 35. Dating, marriage, family and friendships are important during the stage in their life. By successfully forming loving relationships with other people, individuals are able to experience love and intimacy. Those who fail to form lasting relationships may feel isolated and alone.