Second Sudanese Civil War

South Sudan's Road to Independence


The Second Sudanese Civil War was largely a continuation of the First; both started as a result of calls for independence and autonomy for South Sudan and it mostly took place there. It was the longest and deadliest war of the late 20th century.
(Pictured: Flag of the Anyanya, the rebel group that instigated the First Sudanese Civil War)


South Sudan has many natural resources, including oil fields and significant access to water. North Sudan, on the other hand, has limited access to the Nile and is lacking in resources. As a result, in the past North Sudan has sought control of South Sudan’s resources, contributing to animosity between the two regions. In addition, in the north the most common religion is Islam, while the south is largely Christian.


Sudan and South Sudan


- More than 4 million South Sudanese have been forced to flee their homes.
- Over 27,000 South Sudanese boys (the "Lost Boys") were displaced and orphaned.
- Around 1.9 million South Sudanese civilians were killed
- Operation LIfeline Sudan raised 100,000 tons of food to aid those displaced from South Sudan
(Pictured: a group of Lost Boys)

Solutions so Far

In 1993, African leaders gathered to create an initiative for peace for Sudan, with mixed results. In 1994, the Intergovernmental Authority for Development drafted a Declaration of Principles, which attempted to name the essential elements in a peace settlement. Later that year, the Khartoum government opened ties with rebel South Sudanese factions, proclaiming the doctrine of “Peace from Within.” As a result, they formed 3 agreements similar to that drafted by IGAD, calling for autonomy and self-determination for the South. These agreements formed military peace between the opposing groups. However, this peace didn’t last long, and soon the opposing forces were fighting again. Fortunately, on July 9 2011 Sudan officially agreed to South Sudanese independence, creating the new nation of South Sudan.
(Pictured: official flag of South Sudan)

Remaining Problems

Although South Sudan gained its independence a year ago, autonomy by itself hasn’t alleviated problems like tribal conflict, corruption, and famine. In addition, a sudden influx of former refugees may create food or water crises.
(Pictured: South Sudanese refugees returning home)

Proposed Solutions

Operation Lifeline Sudan: in March of 1969, the Sudanese government under Sadiq al-Mahdi agreed to a plan to provide aid, specifically food, to South Sudanese refugees, helping to prevent widespread starvation. In March 1990, Phase 2 was approved, once again helping to prevent catastrophe, this time as a result of a drought from 1991-1992. This phase basically entailed the organization of an international relief effort by UN nations and around 35 NGOs to provide food, water, and education to displaced South Sudanese. It's quite possible that another phase could be organized to aid the new South Sudanese government in ensuring its citizens' safety and well-being.
(Pictured: A UN airplane drops aid packages)