Unit 30

GPU

The graphics card is a component of a pc which is specialised to control and enhance how pictures, programs, videos, animation and 3d renders are displayed on your computer screen. graphics components are on a card which is inserted into the pci-e slot on your motherboard. the graphics card will need to be powered in order for it to work, this is normally done by a Power Supply Unit. the GPU houses a processor and RAM units, it also houses a bios chip which stores the cards initial settings and performs diagnostics on the memory. the processor of the graphics card has been specially designed to perform complex mathematical and geometrical calculations that are necessary for graphical rendering. gpus output a lot of heat so it is usually located under a heat sink.the GPU is useful for image manipulation programs.

Monitor

a computer monitor shows what the user is currently doing. monitors look largely similar to telivisions. the main difference is that monitors dont have tv tuners. the monitor is an output device for the computer.

Graphics tablet

a graphics tablet is a human interface device that allows for the user to have fluid, pen-like strokes on a computer. it consists of the pen, and the tablet. graphics tablets are a great option for graphical design.

PSU

PSU is an abbreviation for the term “power supply unit”. the PSU is responsible for converting an AC Current into a regulated DC power current for internal components of the computer. it is important to check whether the PSU you are using is powerful enough to power each of your components. Some power supplies have a manual selector for the input voltage. some others can automatically adapt to supply the voltage.

CPU

The CPU of the computer is also known as the Central processing unit. the central processing unit carries out the main functions and operations of the computer program. it does this by performing basic arithmetical and logical operations. it is also in charge of the input and output of the system it is possible for a computer to have multiple processing units. this is called multiprocessing. this allows for faster processing times. most home computers do not need multiple processors so most computers only use one CPU. The CPU has 3 main units. the Arithmetic logic unit(ALU), the Control Unit(CU), and the Memory Unit(MU). The Memory Unit is also known as RAM. this unit is not directly attached to the processor, but it is still a main unit. When handling a process, the CPU will start with the Control Unit, and request data from the Memory Unit. It will also use the ALU when handling mathematical operations.

HDD

a hard disk drive is a storage device that is used in most home computers. it is used as it is relatively high capacaty and relatively cheap compared to other mediums.

SSD

SSD stands for Solid State Drive. An SSD is a non volatile storage device that can store data even when powered down on solid state flash memory chips. there are no moving parts in an ssd making them stronger and less prone to memory loss than HDD’s.

Keyboard

The keyboard is the main source of input for computers. a keyboard is a set of keys that operate the computer and input numbers, text, ect. the computer keyboard originally used a PS2 input for connecting to computers, but as USB started to become a main source of input for computers, keyboard manufacturers decided to use this instead due to its faster speed.

RAM

RAM is an abbreviation for the term ‘Random Access Memory’. Random access memory is a computer memory that can be accessed randomly, meaning that any part of data on it can be used and modified with out touching data before it. RAM is one of the most common types of memory that is found in a computer system. RAM stores programs that the computer is currently using, and the operating system. When the computer is powered on, the computer loads the OS into the RAM so that the computer can run faster. this is because ram is faster than other types of memory.

Motherboard

a motherboard is a printed circuit board containing the principal components of a computer. The motherboard contains connectors for other PC components to be slotted into. such as SATA ports, or PCI-E Slots. As well as these slots, the motherboard also contains the CPU socket, the BIOS chip, and controllers that are required for standard peripheral devices. A SATA port is a computer bus interface that connects host adapters to mass storage devices such as hard drives and optical drives. SATA stands for Serial ATA. The pci-e slot is where devices such as graphics cards are inserted. pci-e is a high speed connector. the BIOS chip contains a set of instruction which controls the basic input and output operations

Paint.NET

Paint.NET is a free software used for Image Manipulation purposes. many people use it as a free alternative to MS Paint due to its extended features and options

MS Paint

MS Paint is the default program on windows. it can be used for very basic image manipulation.

Photoshop

Photoshop is a professional Image manipulation program. it is used by the majority of people who are serious about graphic design. photoshop has a large learning curve, and it takes a while to learn how to use it.

Drivers

it is important to always have devices installed with the correct drivers. without the correct drivers, it is possible for devices to not work as they should. to find the best compatible drivers, its always best to follow the instructions provided.

Vector VS Bitmap

bitmap


  • uses less processing power
  • made of pixels
  • individual elements cannot be grouped
  • take up less memory
  • take up less storage space



Vector



  • uses more processing power
  • made from equations and calculations
  • elements can be grouped
  • use more memory
  • takes up more storage space

File extensions

different files are used for different things. there is many things that can be done to determine what file is necessary for our files to be saved as. sometimes, saving as the wrong file format can make files look unlclean, or unprofessional.

JPEG




Format



JPEG

Typical Use

Photographs

Features

  • relatively small file sizes

  • 16.7 million different colours

  • supported by a wide range of software programs


Limitations

  • does not support transparency

  • does not preserve layers

  • lossy compression

PNG



Format



PNG

Typical Use

Internet Use


Features


  • small files

  • transparency

  • used by a lot of websites


Limitations



  • no animation support

  • some older browsers do not support it

GIF



Format

GIF

Typical Use

Animation


Features



  • small files

  • transparency

  • used by a lot of websites


Limitations



  • no animation support

  • some older browsers do not support it

BMP



Format

BMP

Typical Use

Use BMP for any type of bitmap (pixel-based) images


Features



  • Bitmap files may be easily created from existing pixel data stored in an array in memory

  • Pixel values may be modified individually or as large groups by altering a palette if present


Limitations



  • they can be very large

  • they do not scale well

SVG

Format

SVG

Typical Use

Internet use to make your picture easier to find in search engines


Features


  • not compressed/good quality

  • images are defined via XML

  • no information lost through scaling/zooming

  • can be printed in high quality


Limitations

not widely supported

Tiff

format



Tiff


Typical Use

TIFF is good for any type of bitmap (pixel-based) images


Features

  • no image data is lost

  • better quality than Jpeg

  • saved at max bit depth


Limitations

  • very large file size

  • is overkill for anyone that isn’t into photography

psd

Format

Psd

Typical Use

photoshop project file

Features

  • save your edited pictures without rendering them fully, easy for when you need to go back to them later


Limitations
  • cannot be opened as a picture unless you have photoshop from adobe

loss-less VS Lossy Compression

there is two types of compression that can be used, lossy, and loss-less. the lossy images are images that are allowed to lose data when they are scaled. this can make it appear pixelated. loss-less is the opposite. it takes a longer time to load these images as the file sizes are much bigger, however the image retains its original quality.

M1

Getting into graphics design can be an expensive task to do. this is due to the amount of high end equipment that is necessary for individuals to get into. people like to get into grapics design because it is a fun and creative way for people to express their selves. This is necessary for producing high quality content. However, there are alternatives that can help users save money and do graphic design on a budget. an example of this would be to use a free image manipulation program such as GIMP or Paint.NET. this can allow the user to do more basic image manipulations. this could consist of things such as remove the background of the picture or correct minor things such as red eye. there are more advanced pieces of software, such as photoshop, that allow the user to perform many more operations than free alternatives. this is an example for software limitations that will have to be overcome for the user to become better at graphic design.

in order for the user to become better at graphic design, they must overcome these obstacles. it will come down to two choices, the free programs that are included with your PC and free software that is downloaded from the internet, Or opting for a paid alternative that will alow you to do more with your work and allow you to keep advancing in digital graphics. some will have limitations, that is why you will have to try everything before you commit to buying any types of software. another major limitation of paid software is the steep learning curve associated with the programs. practice does make the user better witht he software. it can be a tedious process for the user to learn how each part of the software works. proffesional users of photoshop can still learn new things about the software.

Impact of evolving output mediums on the design and creation of graphic images

Evolution of Display devices

Technology involved in creating a monitor has changed substantially over the last 15 years. when looking at monitors from the mid 2000's, the old style CRT monitors have been replaced by many other styles of monitor. these consist of display technologies such as LCD, Plasma displays, and OLED displays. these have have much lower manufacturing costs, power consumption, weight, and bulk. as well as this, these panels are also much faster at responding to the input of the computer, have much higher resolutions, and also much more uses for them. For example, a CRT monitor could only be used with devices that could output using VGA. with the new technologies, it is now possible to use monitors for many more input devices. Such as HDMI, MINI HDMI, Display Port, Mini display port, DVI, and DVID. as well as these input devices, the new technologies are also usually backwards compatible with VGA.


the old style CRT monitors worked by relying on a device called a Cathode Ray Tube. CRT Monitors receive their picture via an analogue cable. The signal is then decoded by the display controller, which handles the internal components of the monitor.


the recommended resolution usage for CRT monitors is approximately 800x600. this is much lower than technologies today. modern displays have the potential to go up to 3840 X 2160, and much much higher.


LCD monitors use liquid crystals to manipulate the image that they project. LCD displays are much more simple to understand. The signal comes in to the panel from the video controller and the signal is decoded and understood by a display controller contained in the hardware for a monitor. the controller has 2 things to control. the electrics of the pixels, and the light source.


the image on a LCD is made up of a matrix of pixels. unlike with CRTs, there's no complex equation of dot pitch and image area to try and calculate. the native resolution of an LCD monitor is simply the number of pixels contained in a matrix. Each individual pixel is made up of three sub-pixels, which contain red, blue, and green filters. similar to how a CRT has RGB phosphors.


There is still much more room for improvement with displays. currently, there are prototypes for flexible displays. this would allow for devices to be created, without the need for being flat. as well as this, there is also much higher resolutions being tested. these aren't widely used as the price is too high for normal users.


Monitors in the future could be using a different technology all together. They could also have much higher resolutions.


Back when resolutions of monitors was as low as 800x600, it was un necessary for people to create high resolution images as there would be no need for them. but now that resolutions have substantially increased, it is now possible for graphic designers to correct fine details in their work, and also make them much more high quality

Printers

printer technology has increased dramatically over the years. from Dot-Matrix printers, to inkjet, then to laser printing. We are now able to print many more materials and also we are able to print 3D models.


printers used to only be known for putting a picture/ text on a piece of paper. but now they are able to print 3d plastic models.


this is useful for designers as they can make a physical model of what they are designing with ease. When 3d printing was not a feasible option, people used to have to design parts thoroughly, and then wait while the part was created and machined. now that 3d printing is possible, it removes the chance for user error when being created. However there is still a possibility for the user to create an error when designing the part. This however is no longer a big problem as the designer can easily prototype and correct where needed.


the future of printing could potentially include many more materials. Such as metals, food, or maybe even living organs. this would be beneficial to designers as they would be able to use more materials and not just plastic when 3d printing

Computer Mouse

computer mice used to use a heavy ball that would roll when the mouse was moved, and move two rollers inside the mouse to determine the change in position. This innovative design was easy to use, and cheap to manufacture.


Mice now use lasers to determine the change in postion. this is a much faster alternative to a mouse with a ball. this allows for much smaller movements to be made, or much higher DPI's to be set.


this is useful for designers as they can do very small movement on the mouse, and it will still be calculated by the computer. this is beneficial for modifying very small parts of images, or maybe even recoloring seperate pixels.


future mice may not be a hand held device, they may use technologies that can determine the position of your hand and calculate a movement depending on how you move your hand. these mice may be able to easily move inside of a 3D space in programs such as blender. this would be beneficial to graphic designers as it is currently difficult to navigate through a 3D space.