Apush Exam Review

Key Period 4

Samuel Slater

Samuel Slater was known as the father of the American industrial industry because he brought Britain's technological textile blueprints into the US when they put a strict policy that none of their technology is allowed to leave their country. Slater was an apprentice for Richard Arkwright, the inventor of the most advanced British machinery for spinning cotton. Since Britain prohibited its mechanics from leaving, many disguised themselves as laborers in order to get to the US to seek higher wages. Slater saw this as a chance to make it big so he studied the plans and went to the US where he started the Industrial Revolution.

Indian Removal Act

The Indian Removal Act was issued by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. The Act forced many Native Americans to be removed from their tribal territories for the use of the United States. They were all escorted by US Army troopers to a journey to Oklahoma, a reserve for the Indians removed from their land by this act.This journey was also later known more as the Trail of Tears since many Indians have died during their relocation.This act was greatly supported by all but the Natives because they were eager to inhabit the lands that were once populated with Indians of southeastern tribes. was also later known more as the Trail of Tears since many Indians have died during their relocation.

Monroe Doctrine

The Monroe Doctrine was the US foreign policy that was established in the year 1823. The Policy stated that any foreign action or act of colonization (unless colonization has been happening prior to the issue of the policy) against any country within the Western Hemisphere (North and South America) will be treated as an act of aggression. This will also lead to the intervention of the United States whenever it involved us or not.

Steel Plow

The Steel Plow was invented by John Deere in the year 1837. The reason why it became an instant hit within the Midwest of the United States was because the soil over there was very different from the soil within the East since it was harder than usual causing the wooden plows to break easily. The Steel Plow, however, proved to be a success by overcoming the hard soil of the Midwest and helping out settlers by allowing them to produce crops.

Mechanical Reaper

The Mechanical Reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick in the year 1831. This machine was used to harvest crops mechanically by attaching it to a horse instead of using a sickle and harvesting them by hand. Although it was known for being quite noisy, the reaper allowed wheat to be harvested quicker as well as decreasing the amount of labor used in order to harvest it.

McCulloch v. Maryland

In 1819 Maryland imposed a tax on all banks operating in Maryland not charted by the state. The statue provided that such banks were prohibited from issuing bank notes except upon stamped paper issued by the state. McCullouch the cashier from Baltimore branch of the BUS, issued bank notes without complying with the Maryland law. Maryland sued McCullouch for failing to pay the taxes due under the Maryland statute and McCullouch contested the constitutionality of that act.

Gibbons v. Ogden

(1824) Thomas Gibbons a steamship trader wanted to use the New York waterways for his business which he was given federal permission to do so. Though he was denied access to these waterways by the state of New York which cited its law as enforcement. Gibbons sued Ogden, the supreme court of the US held the power to regulate interstate commerce granted by the Commerce Clause of the US constitution , encompassed the power to regulate navigation.

Worcester v. Georgia

1832 the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non- Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.

Utopian communities

Utopian communities were areas where groups of people lived that lived strictly under the literal terms of the bible. With intense and strict views on marriage and sex they intended to live in a perfect society. However this didn't get to last long because they couldn't get enough conformers ad it ended up changing into society of simplicity and celibacy after the 1830's.

Tarrif Disputes

The Tariff 1816 was a huge turning point in American history because it was the first time America taxed to protect its own businesses and economy. America raised taxes on foreign goods so that citizens would buy more American products making America more self reliant, and help America recover from the war of 1812.

The American Colonization Society

The American colonization society came to be in 1816 when they began to allow free colored people to settle. They hoped to release racial tension in the United states. However some apposes believed that African in America would do no good in the United States and should just be sent to Africa after they are freed.

Oregon Border

James K Polk suggested that the United States should be prepared to go to war with Britain in order to annex the entire Oregon country up to Russian-owned Alaska at latitude 54°40′N (fifty-four forty). This position ultimately produced the famous line "54 40 or fight!" coined in 1846 by opponents of such a policy. This was soon followed by the Oregon treaty in 1846 which put an end to the dispute between the United States and Britain and put the border at the 49th parallel.

Texas Annexation

After Texas gained independence from Mexico and became it's own Republic in 1836, many supported the annexation of Texas into the United States. Eventually, knowing that they wouldn't have too much trouble with Mexico, The United States government made Texas a state in 1845. It was a joint resolution, both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler's presidency. The Texas Annexation became a big part of John Tyler's presidential campaign and Tyler signed the bill shortly before leaving office.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842

Signed in 1842, the Treaty resolved a number of border disputes between the US and the British North American colonies, particularly The Maine-Newbrunswick border. Although, the Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods border were solved as well and the treaty saw the 49th parallel as the border in the West. The treaty acted as a formal end to slave trade on the high seas and the shared use of the Great Lakes was established. Essentially, borders became fixed due to the Webster Ashburton Treaty.

Nullification Crisis

The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared, by the power of the State itself, that the federal Tariff of 1828 and the federal Tariff of 1832 were unconstitutional and null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina. The controversial, and highly protective, Tariff of 1828 was enacted into law during the presidency of John Quincy Adams.

Missouri Compromise 1820

The issue that the Missouri Compromise revolved around was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore disrupting the balance in the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise was set up so that Maine joined the Union as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri called the 30 60' line saying that, except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states and all states south of the line must be slave states.

Richard Allen (1760-1831)

Richard Allen, Born into slavery in 1760 until he bought his freedom, was an African American preacher who helped start the Free African Society and the African Methodist episcopal church. He was inspired by a white Methodist preacher who would actively denounce slavery to become a Methodist. He was also an activist and abolitionist whose ardent writings would inspire future visionaries.

David Walker

African American activist who demanded the immediate end of slavery in the new nation. A leader in Boston, Massachusetts, David Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World was a call to "awaken my brethren" to the power within Black unity and struggle. He's recognized for his contribution to ending slavery in the United States. Some credit Walker for exerting influence on the abolitionist movements of his day and beyond. He has inspired many generations of Black leaders and activists of all backgrounds.

Hudson River School

Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition. Painters at the school often focused on beauty in the surrounding environments and Transcendentalist views. Was active from 1825 to 1870 painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River and the surrounding New England. Hudson River School is often considered the first coherent school of art in the United States.

John James Audubon (1785-1851)

Coming from Santo Domingo in 1803, John James Audubon was an artist who specialized in painting wild fowl. He had many of his works centered around birds in the United States. Ironically, he shot a lot of birds for sport when he was young. the Audubon Society for the Protection of Birds was named after him. His depictions of western wildlife contributed to the western population movements in the 1800s after the Civil War.