Native Americans

By: Sam Carpenter

Anasazi (ancestors of the Pueblo) 500-1200 AD

The Anasazi constructed dams, ditches, and canals to trap rain from tops of mesa and channel it to gardens on the canyon floor. Their houses were made of adobe and stone. They were multi-storied and apartment-like. They lived along walls of cliffs or large plazas. The heart of the civilization in Chaco Canyon was Pueblo Bonito, where there was a massive complex of more than 1000 people. From Pueblo Bonito they built roads for trading networks. Their craftsmen made turquoise jewelry, woven baskets, (black on white) and pottery. They heavily influenced are and architecture of late groups such as the Hopi and Zuni. These were two of the largest Pueblo groups today.

Adena (collectively known as the Eastern Woodlands peoples)
This tribe lived in the Ohio valley region around 700 BC. They grew squash, sunflowers, gourds, and barley. They were producers of exquisite copper jewelry and fine pottery. They also had elaborate burial mounds made up of log structures covered by piles of earth.

Hopewell ( also collectively known as the Eastern Woodlands peoples)
This tribe arrived in the Ohio valley around 300 BC. They built mounds and some were 40 fee high and 100 feet wide. The artifacts left by this tribe suggest that they had a very large trade network. Adena and Hopewell both were referred to as "Mound Builders."

They arrived in the Mississippi valley by 800 AD. They had plants that were used for many foods. When they added maize and beans they had an increase in population. The increase in population caused a need for more land. This resulted in many cities with up to 10,000 people. The largest was Cahokia and it was located near present day East St. Louis. In the center Cahokia was a massive mound that was about 100 feet high and 14 acres wide. Around this mound was about 120 smaller mounds.

All of these Mississippi civilizations collapsed by the beginning of 1300's AD. They all influenced other Eastern Woodlands people through their agricultural practices of large scale farming with beans and corns and mound building.