The Alternative to Free Reading:
Direct Instruction: A Combination of Two Processes
Krashen states that there are two processes involved in direct instruction: skill building and error correction. In skill building students are consciously learning a rule, word meaning, or spelling and making the rule automatic through output practice. In error correction students are expected to adjust their conscious knowledge of the rule, word, or spelling that they have made an error with.
Arguments Against Instruction
Krashen states that there are three arguments against instruction, which include: 1) language is too complex to be taught or learned one rule or word at a time; 2) literacy development can happen without formal instruction; and 3) The impact of direct instruction is typically small or nonexistant. When effects are shown, they disappear with time.