Beliefs and religions

By Michael bucello


Hinduism is is much more than a religion, It is a total way of life. including customs,beliefs, and practices. It is the dominant religion in South Asia. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is a family of linked religious cultures bound by shared concepts,

And rituals.

Hinduism's holy book: Vedas

Vedas is the hindu's most sacred book. The Vedas are a large body of texts originated in India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitutes the oldest layer of Hinduism scriptures. This book contains philosophy and hymns and guidance for a Hindu. Vedas means wisdom, knowledge, or vision, and Hindus believe it manifests the language of their gods in human speech. The laws of Vedas regulate the social, legal, domestic, and religious customs of the Hindus to this present day. All of the obligatory duties of the Hindus at birth,marriage,death,etc. owe their allegiance to the Vedic rituals. It is believed that humans did not compose the revered compositions of the Vedas, which were handed down from generation by word of mouth.The general assumption is that the Vedic hymns were either taught by god to the sages or that they were revealed themselves to the sages who were the seers or mantradrasta of the hymns.The Vedas were mainly complied by Vyasa Krishana Dwaipayana around the time of lord Krishna (1500 bc)

Founder of Hinduism

Who is the founder of Hinduism ?" This is one of the most basic questions asked about Hinduism. It is so obvious because all the other religions have founders in this world.

Christianity was founded by Jesus Christ, Islam is founded by Hajrat Mohammed Paigambar, Buddism by Gautam Buddha and so on. So as Hinduism a religion, there must be a founder. The answer for this question is there is no single founder of Hinduism as Hinduism was not founded as a religion. It was a culture basically flourished in India, which later formed into a religion.

Origins of Hinduism

According to historians, the origin of Hinduism dates back to 5,000 or more years. The word "Hindu" is derived from the name of River Indus, which flows through northern India. In ancient times the river was called the 'Sindhu', but the Persians who migrated to India called the river 'Hindu', the land 'Hindustan' and its inhabitants 'Hindus'. Thus the religion followed by the Hindus came to be known as 'Hinduism'.It was earlier believed that the basic tenets of Hinduism were brought to India by the Aryans who invaded the Indus Valley Civilization and settled along the banks of the Indus river about 2000 BC. However, this theory has now been proved to be a flawed one and is considered nothing more than a myth.According to scholars, the evolution of Hinduism may be divided into three periods: the ancient (6500 BCE-1000 AD), the medieval (1000-1800 AD), and the modern (1800 AD to present). Hinduism is commonly thought to be the oldest religion in the history of human civilization.

Practices of hinduism

    Hindu practices include rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong Sannyasa (ascetic practices) to achieve moksha. here are five basic practices, pancha nitya karmas, often observed by Hindus. They are to: 1) worship daily, 2) follow dharma, 3) observe the sam-skaras (rites of passage), 4) celebrate the holy days and 5) go on pilgrimage to sacred places. Other practices include meditation, chanting of mantras, study of scripture, hatha yoga and other yoga techniques, and simple austerities, such as fasting. There are many samskaras, including a child's name-giving ceremony, the first feeding of solid food, the beginning of formal education and marriage. It is a common practice for Hindu women to wear a bindi, a red dot on the forehead. A similar mark, called tilaka, is worn by men at the temple or on ceremonial occasions. This forehead mark symbolizes many things, especially spiritual vision.ery Hindu home has a place of worship. It may be as simple as a shelf with pictures of God or an entire room dedicated to worship. Many families have a spiritual guide or guru whose picture is displayed in the shrine. There, the family may light a lamp, ring a bell and pray daily. The most devout hold a formal morning worship ritual. They offer flowers, incense, lights and food to God while chanting sacred verses. Individual members will often go to the shrine for blessings before leaving for school or work. At other times one may sit alone in the shrine, pray and chant the names of God, read from scripture, meditate silently or sing devotional songs.ndus prefer to live within a day's journey of a temple. The temple is a special building, revered as the home of God. The main Deity is enshrined in the temple's central sanctum. In India, there are hundreds of thousands of temples, most quite ancient. Temples in India can be enormous, covering many acres, having vast pillared hallways that can accommodate 500,000 devotees during a festival. Often one or more families of priests oversee the temple and conduct the worship over many generations. When Hindus migrate outside India, they build a temple as soon as possible. At first, community leaders themselves conduct the daily rituals. Later, professional priests are hired. There are now hundreds of Hindu temples in America. The largest are in New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Texas and California.

Code of conduct

Hindus have a simple set of rules to follow like the Ten Commandments. Local, regional, caste, and community-driven practices influence the interpretation and practice of beliefs throughout the Hindu world.

Here are some of the key beliefs shared among Hindus:

  • Truth is eternal.

    Hindus pursue knowledge and understanding of the Truth: the very essence of the universe and the only Reality. According to the Vedas, Truth is One, but the wise express it in a variety of ways.

  • Brahman is Truth and Reality.

    Hindus believe in Brahman as the one true God who is formless, limitless, all-inclusive, and eternal. Brahman is not an abstract concept; it is a real entity that encompasses everything (seen and unseen) in the universe.

  • The Vedas are the ultimate authority.

    The Vedas are Hindu scriptures that contain revelations received by ancient saints and sages. Hindus believe that the Vedas are without beginning and without end; when everything else in the universe is destroyed (at the end of a cycle of time), the Vedas remain.

  • Everyone should strive to achieve dharma.

    Understanding the concept of dharma helps you understand the Hindu faith. Unfortunately, no single English word adequately covers its meaning. Dharma can be described as right conduct, righteousness, moral law, and duty. Anyone who makes dharma central to one’s life strives to do the right thing, according to one’s duty and abilities, at all times.

  • Individual souls are immortal.

    A Hindu believes that the individual soul (atman) is neither created nor destroyed; it has been, it is, and it will be. Actions of the soul while residing in a body require that it reap the consequences of those actions in the next life — the same soul in a different body.

    • The goal of the individual soul is moksha.

      Moksha is liberation: the soul’s release from the cycle of death and rebirth. It occurs when the soul unites with Brahman by realizing its true nature. Several paths can lead to this realization and unity: the path of duty, the path of knowledge, and the path of devotion (unconditional surrender to God).

Final resting place

Salvation can be defined as freedom of soul from the cycle of birth and rebirth and becoming one with the Supreme Soul. The Sanskrit word for salvation is Moksha or Nirvana. The word Moksha is mainly used by Hindus and the word Nirvana is mainly used by Buddhists, but the meaning is the same. According to Hinduism, the soul (Atma) dwells in every living being. The death is that of the body and not of the soul as the soul is immortal. When the person dies, the soul enters a new body. Depending upon its Karma in the past life, it gets a new body and undergoes happiness and/or sufferings again. This cycle continues until the soul attains salvation i.e. freedom from the cycle of birth and rebirth.Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha are the four aims of a human life amongst which Moksha is the final aim. After fulfilling all our duties towards society and family, we should turn our attention towards Moksha. All our actions should be done as duties within the frame of the rules of the society and we should devote all our actions to the God.

Spread of Hinduism

It began in the Indus Valley region of the Indian subcontinent as a mixture of the Brahmanic beliefs of the Aryan-speakers and local, indigenous beliefs. Although the largest population of practitioners have remained in India -- over 800 million -- it has spread throughout the rest of the world.One of the earliest regions that Hinduism spread to was Southeast Asia. Indian Brahmins may have arrived in the area through trade. The rulers of these regions seemed to have gravitated to them and adopted many of the Hindu religious practices as part of their own. The lasting influence on the rest of the social classes in Southeast Asia is more debatable, but Chinese works speak of the influence of India in second-century Vietnam, while Sanskrit accounts of Vedic rituals date back to fourth-century Borneo. Whether a result of immigration to the region of Indians or travelers to India bringing concepts back to their homelands, by the middle of the first millennium many people had adopted Hindu ideas and practices. However, Bali is one of few places where the religion has maintained a presence in the region, which has instead gravitated towards Buddhism. Also As a colony of England, India was prime territory to recruit native Indians to work plantations in South American and African colonies. Guyana, in South America, has a very large Indian population, much of which is Hindu, due to the British bringing Indians to work as indentured servants starting around 1850. Likewise, Indians were brought to African countries, such as South Africa, Uganda and Ghana, for the same reasons, at approximately the same time. Over 60 percent of Uganda’s South Asian population is Hindu, although they were dispelled from the country for 20 years. Meanwhile, in South Africa, Hindus were forced to convert to Christianity, which hurt the cultural identity of the Hindus for quite some time. However, Hindu missionaries began to spring up in the country to counteract Christian missionaries, bringing with them a renewed desire to hold onto the culture and beliefs, particularly later in the 20th century with the emergence of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. In Guyana, this heritage is very important to the people, who still celebrate important Hindu religious festivals like Holi and Diwali.

How Hinduism affects a Hindus daily life

Hinduism affects a Hindus life greatly be cases they have to follow rules, that maybe there friends might not follow, and have certain jobs you might not want because you are in a certain caste in the caste system. This all affects their daily life


Buddhism is a religion to about 300 million people around the world. The word comes from 'budhi', 'to awaken'. It has its origins about 2,500 years ago when Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, was himself awakened (enlightened) at the age of 35.

Holy book

Is there a Buddhist Bible? Not exactly. Buddhism has a vast number of scriptures, but few texts are accepted as authentic and authoritative by every school of Buddhism.There is one other reason that there is no Buddhist Bible. Many religions consider their scriptures to be the revealed word of God or gods. In Buddhism, however, it is understood that the scriptures are teachings of the historical Buddha -- who was not a god -- or other enlightened masters.The teachings in Buddhist scriptures are directions for practice, or how to realize enlightenment for oneself. What's important is to understand and practice what the texts are teaching, not just "believe in" them.

Origins of buddism

Buddhism, founded in the late 6th century B.C.E. by Siddhartha Gautama (the "Buddha"), is an important religion in most of the countries of Asia. Buddhism has assumed many different forms, but in each case there has been an attempt to draw from the life experiences of the Buddha, his teachings, and the "spirit" or "essence" of histeachings (called dhamma or dharma) as models for the religious life. However, not until the writing of the Buddha Charita (life of the Buddha) by Ashvaghosa in the 1st or 2nd century C.E. do we have acomprehensive account of his life. The Buddha was born (ca. 563 B.C.E.) in a place called Lumbini near the Himalayan foothills, and he began teaching around Benares (at Sarnath). His erain general was one of spiritual, intellectual, and social ferment. This was the age when the Hindu ideal of renunciation of family and socia llife by holy persons seeking Truth first became widespread, and when the Upanishads were written. Both can be seen as moves away from the centrality of the Vedic fire sacrifice.

Spread of buddism

Long ago, Buddhism began to spread southwards from its place of origin in Northern India to Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Indo-China and other South East Asian countries. It also moved Northwards through Kashmir Afghanistan along the ‘Silk road’ into the Himalayan kingdoms (Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal), Tibet, Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia, and also into China, and later Korea and Japan. This was a fortunate development because Buddhism had all but died out in India after the Muslim incursions of the eleventh Century CE. In more modern times, the spread of Communism has also virtually obliterated Buddhism from various other countries where it was once strongly established (e.g. China, Vietnam, Tibet, Mongolia etc.). There is now a resurgence of Buddhism in these countries. Nowadays, however, Buddhism is attracting an increasing following in Europe and the Americas. In Asia, it is thriving in countries like Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Korea and Japan

Buddhist beliefs

Buddhism, like most of the great religions of the world, is divided into a number of different traditions. However, most traditions share a common set of fundamental beliefs.

One fundamental belief of Buddhism is often referred to as reincarnation -- the concept that people are reborn after dying. In fact, most individuals go through many cycles of birth, living, death and rebirth. A practicing Buddhist differentiates between the concepts of rebirth and reincarnation. In reincarnation, the individual may recur repeatedly. In rebirth, a person does not necessarily return to Earth as the same entity ever again. He compares it to a leaf growing on a tree. When the withering leaf falls off, a new leaf will eventually replace it. It is similar to the old leaf, but it is not identical to the original leaf.

After many such cycles, if a person releases their attachment to desire and the self, they can attain Nirvana. This is a state of liberation and freedom from suffering.

Buddist practices

Becoming a Buddhist is making a commitment to practice Buddhism by taking the vows of refuge. This commitment usually involves a daily meditation or chanting practice as well as following Buddhist teachings in one's day-to-day life. Although some Buddhists practice by themselves, most find it strengthening and rewarding to work with a teacher and a fellowship of other Buddhists. Many people interested in the teachings and philosophies of Buddhism are put off by the ritual activities, such as bowing to altars and chanting. Many Westerners interested in Buddhism avoid temples and dharma centers because they are uncomfortable with the rituals. This is a shame, because rituals can be powerful tools for a stronger practice. This section looks at aspects of formal practice, such as ritual, to help you understand why they are important and become more comfortable with them.Buddhists are called upon to treat others with patience, compassion and loving kindness. How do we do that when people are not so lovingly kind to us? And does being a Buddhist mean being a patsy? The teachings of the Buddha do apply to our real-world, everyday lives and the choices we make, minute by minute, about how we conduct ourselves and relate to others. Actualizing the teachings in our lives is both infinitely challenging and infinitely rewarding.

Buddhist codes and rules

Buddhist rules

  • harming living things
  • taking what is not given
  • sexual misconduct
  • lying or gossip
  • taking intoxicating substances eg drugs or drink

Buddhist monks live by ten precepts. The ten precepts are the five precepts plus refraining from the following:

  • taking substantial food after midday (from noon to dawn)
  • dancing, singing and music
  • use of garlands, perfumes and personal adornment like jewelery
  • use of luxurious beds and seats
  • accepting and holding money, gold or silver

Final resting place

The final resting place is moksha,The words moksha, nirvana and kaivayla are sometimes used synonymously, because they all refer to the state that liberates a person from all causes of sorrow and suffering.However, in modern era literature, these concepts have different premises in different religions.Nirvana, a concept common in Buddhism, is the realization that there is no self nor consciousness; while moksha, a concept common in many schools of Hinduism, is acceptance of Self, realization of liberating knowledge, the consciousness of Oneness with all existence and understanding the whole universe as the Self.Nirvana starts with the premise that there is no Self, moksha on the other hand, starts with the premise that everything is the Self; there is no consciousness in the state of nirvana, but everything is One unified consciousness in the state of moksha.

Founder of buddism

The founder of Buddhism in this world is Buddha Shakyamuni. He was born as a royal prince in 624 BC in a place called Lumbini, which was originally in northern India but is now part of Nepal. ‘Shakya’ is the name of the royal family into which he was born, and ‘Muni’ means ‘Able One’. His parents gave him the name Siddhartha and there were many wonderful predictions about his future. In his early years he lived as a prince in his royal palace but when he was 29 years old he retired to the forest where he followed a spiritual life of meditation. After six years he attained enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree in Bodh Gaya, India.

Buddism daily life

The Buddhist life must be hard considering you must have no worldly desires, they must fool the eightfold path and treat others well


Judaism, the religion of the Jews. It is the complex phenomenon of a total way of life for the Jewish people, comprising theology, law, and innumerable cultural traditions.

Founder of juaism

One of Judaism's great figures is the man called Moshe Rabbenu('Moses our teacher') in Hebrew. The first five books of the Bible are traditionally ascribed to him. Moses is the channel between God and the Hebrews, through whom the Hebrews received a basic charter for living as Gods people.

Holy book of Judaism

The word "Torah" is a tricky one, because it can mean different things in different contexts. In its most limited sense, "Torah" refers to the Five Books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. But the word "torah" can also be used to refer to the entire Jewish bible (the body of scripture known to non-Jews as the Old Testament and to Jews as the Tanakh or Written Torah), or in its broadest sense, to the whole body of Jewish law and teachings.To Jews, there is no "Old Testament." The books that Christians call the New Testament are not part of Jewish scripture. The so-called Old Testament is known to us as Written Torah or the Tanakh.

This is a list of the books of Written Torah, in the order in which they appear in Jewish translations, with the Hebrew name of the book, a translation of the Hebrew name (where it is not the same as the English name), and English names of the books (where it is not the same as the Hebrew name). The Hebrew names of the first five books are derived from the first few words of the book. The text of each book is more or less the same in Jewish translations as what you see in Christian bibles, although there are some occasional, slight differences in the numbering of verses and there are some significant differences in the translations.

Origins of Judaism

The start of Judaism as a religion was at Mount Sinai at the great revelation (1400 BCE). The start of Judaism as a religion was when Hashem (God) gave the ten commandments to the Jewish nation at Mount Sinai. From then on for forty years the Jewish people wandered in the Sinai desserts and Moses taught them the Torah, as he heard it from Hashem (God).

How Judaism spread

One way that Judaism has spread and will spread is that since there is a lot of Judaism around the world already all of their children will most likely become Jewish as well. Unless something very bad happens then the Judaism population will only become only bigger. The many powerful kings have also built many Jewish temples so the more people that see these temples may convert because the Jewish people are so faithful. Also many historical circumstances have made Judaism popular around the world converting more and more people to Judaism. People also believe that Jewish people traded and traveled so they had to have spread their culture while they were trading and traveling.

Jews beliefs

Judaism is a monotheistic faith, meaning that Jews believe there is only One God. Often this God is beyond our ability to comprehend, but God is nevertheless present in our everyday lives.How individual Jews choose to understand this manifestation of the divine varies. Some connect with God through prayer, others see the divine in the majesty of the natural world, others may not think about God on a daily basis. Each individual's relationship with God is unique and personal.

Jewish practices

In Judaism, rituals and religious observances are grounded in Jewish law (halakhah, lit. "the path one walks." An elaborate framework of divine mitzvot, or commandments, combined with rabbinic laws and traditions, this law is central to Judaism.

Jewish rules

1) I am the Lord thy god, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

2) Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.

3) Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.

4) Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.

5) Honor thy father and thy mother.

6) Thou shalt not murder.

7) Thou shalt not commit adultery.

8) Thou shalt not steal.

9) Thou shalt not bear false witness against they neighbor.

10) Thou shalt not covet anything that belongs to thy neighbor.

Jewish final resting place

Judaism has from the Torah itself always spoken of a life following this one. The Torah speaks about what seems to be a physical place, called Sheol, to which one "goes down" following this life. A variety of different passages indicate that Sheol was probably though of as located in the center of the earth, although it is no ever formally described. What is clear is that this was a well-known concept amongst the ancient Israelites.

Jewish daily life

Being a Jew affects your life in a big way, must follow ten rules, and you can't eat all animals, this gets hard when your with people that don't believe what you do


    Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of philosophical and "ethical-sociopolitical teachings" sometimes described as a religion.


he philosopher Confucious (or Kongzi, c. 551 to c. 479 BCE) is the recognized founder of Confusionism also referred to as the Ru-jia doctrine or School of Literati as it is known by Western scholars. Originally, Confucianism was composed of a set of political and moral doctrines with the teachings of Confucius as its basis. Later on, the teachings of Mencius(Meng Zi) and Xunzi (Xun zi) also became part of Confucianism. The word Confucianism seems to be the creation of European Christians who entered China about 1860 CE and was originally used to label their notion of the non-Christian religions they came across in China.

Holy texts

The Lun-yü (Analects) are the most revered sacred scripture in the Confucian tradition. It was probably compiled by the second generation of Confucius' disciples. Based primarily on the Master's sayings, preserved in both oral and written transmissions, it captures the Confucian spirit in the same way that the Platonic dialogues embody Socratic teachings. The Confucian Canon achieved its present form in the Sung dynasty under the direction of Chu Hsi (1130-1200). It consists of the Five Classics and the Four Books.


principle of Confucianism is ren ("humaneness" or "benevolence"), signifying excellent character in accord with li (ritual norms), zhong (loyalty to one's true nature), shu (reciprocity), and xiao (filial piety). Together these constitute de (virtue).

Confucianism is characterized by a highly optmistic view of human nature. The faith in the possibility of ordinary human beings to become awe-inspiring sages and worthies is deeply rooted in the Confucian heritage (Confucius himself lived a rather ordinary life), and the insistence that human beings are teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour is typically Confucian.

Confucius regarded Heaven (T'ien) as a positive and personal force in the universe; he was not, as some have supposed, an agnostic or a skeptic.


Aside from its important ethical principles, Confucianism does not prescribe any specific rituals or practices. These are filled by the practices of Chinese religion, Taoism, Buddhism, or other religion which Confucians follow.