"On small step for man, one giant leap for mankind"

Kennedy Election

    • because he was very pro-civil rights, 70% of african americans voted for kennedy

    • these votes gave him a winning edge in several states

    • won over primarily protestant west virginia

    • did not reach the 761 votes required for nomination until the final state on the list (Wyoming)

    • Kennedy challenged the republican nominee (VP Richard Nixon) to televised debates

    • Nixon was urged to refuse the national exposure

    • 70 million americans watched the first televised debate

    • the television watchers felt JFK had won because of his debate style (talked more to the audience and the camera vs nixon) but radio listeners felt Nixon won because of his responses

    • kennedy won 3million out of the 4million votes of those that made up their mins because of the televised debate

    • Kennedy tried to identify himself with the liberal reform tradition of the Democratic party of Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman, promising a new surge of legislative innovation in the 1960s.

    • in the final days of the tour, Pres. Eisenhower started a speaking tour in favor of republican candidates (several states seemed to shift to nixon after the tour)

    • On November 8, 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president in one of the closest elections in U.S. history. In the popular vote, his margin over Nixon was 118,550 out of a total of nearly 69 million votes cast. His success in many urban and industrial states gave him a clear majority of 303 to 219 in the electoral vote. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the youngest man ever elected president, the only Catholic, and the first president born in the twentieth century.

  • JFK’s platform was called the New Frontier

    • promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, healthcare, and civil rights

Cold War

  • Kennedy promoted aflexible responseto the cold war. an assortment of weapons and strategies were developed to fight whatever problem was at hand. that would be necessary to fight whatever problem arose from the war at hand.

  • Vietnam

    • US supported a military government in the south as opposed to the communist north vietnam (was afraid free elections in the south would result in a total communist vietnamese country)

    • because of the protests against the Vietnamese leader Diem (due to his catholic religion and the want of buddhist representation) kennedy increased the number of military advisers to help stabilize his regime

    • also pressed for the vietnamese government to “clean house” to starts political and economic reforms

  • Cuba

    • Kennedy planned with the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro in Cuba

      • used USA trained exiled cubans as an army

    • intended to invade and start an uprising with the people

    • April 17 1961, Kennedy ordered the Bay of Pigs invasion

      • by april 19, all the invaders were captured and Kennedy had to bargain for their lives. set them free in return for $53 million in food and medicine

      • made Castro wary of the US

    • Cuban Missile Crisis

      • October 14, 1962, photographs of missiles were photographed being built in cuba by the soviets

      • these posed an immediate nuclear threat

      • Kennedy tried to talk to the soviet leader, wanted him to dismantle the building sites

      • neither country would back down

      • after another soviet ship was stopped, the soviets agreed to dismantle their building sites in cuba if the US took their missiles promised never to invade Cuba again

  • Berlin Crisis

    • Kennedy met with Soviet leader Khrushchev, mainly to discuss the divided country of Germany, and the amount of germans that were moving from East Germany into West Germany

    • Khrushchev was aggressive, Kennedy felt threatened and stated to the American people that they might have to defend their rights to be in Berlin militarily

    • in response to all of this, President Kennedy ordered substantial increases in American intercontinental ballistic missile forces, added five new army divisions, and increased the nation's air power and military reserves.

  • Berlin Wall construction

    • August 13, 1961 building of the Berlin Wall started

    • went through cemeteries, city streets, all dividing west berlin from east berlin.

    • visual representation of the iron curtain of communism and the hold the soviets had on east Germany

    • Kennedy chose not to challenge the building of the wall

    • instead, he resumed nuclear testing research as the soviets resumed their studies

Kennedy and Civil Rights

    • pro civil rights

    • talked to MLK’s wife and ensure his safe release from jail when he was arrested for his peaceful protests

    • spoke out in favor of school desegregation, praised those that integrated races

    • appointed several african americans to high level administration jobs to strengthen the civil rights movement

    • put his vice president (Lyndon B. Johnson) in charge of the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity.

    • had a hand in integrating Ole Miss and Alabama

Kennedy's Assisination

  • November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated as he rode in a car parade through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, Texas.

  • The parade was for Kennedy’s democratic speakings tour that he was holding all across the country for his re-election

  • Kennedy was aware that there was a group of extremists that could jeopardize his chances of a successful campaign, but went ahead with his speech

  • He was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald from a window as he drove past

  • The next day as Oswald was being moved to the county jail, he was murdered by Jack Ruby, a local nightclub owner

  • President Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia