what is diffraction?

diffraction is the bending of waves around obstacles in their path.
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How diffraction is related to light

When a light wave collides with a particle in their path the light wave becomes altered.

Real life applications

Diffraction in real life could be as simple as the shadow of a flagpole cast by the sun. Diffraction is also used in X-rays and holograms. It is used by telescopes and has produced one of sciences most important tools; the diffraction grating.
Laser Diffraction and Interference