Virtual Dissection Lab

Earthworm

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Objectives

This presentation demonstrates the internal and external structures of an earthworm. The organs of the worm will be stated and a specific system of the earthworm is described thoroughly. The ecological role of an earthworm will also be included. Dissecting an earthworm allows one to view and understand the bodily functions of the worm.

Background

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Annelida

Order: Megadrilacea

Species: Terrestris

Habitat: Soil

Predators: Snakes, birds, rodents, some insects

Prey: N/A (They eat the nutriets and the soil, they are decomposers)

Ecological Adaptations: -Mucus coating helps oxygen pass through the skin when in air or water

-Streamlined body shape allows it to move through the soil.

Earthworms are the largest members of the class Oligochaeta. They are organisms that are not only used for fish bait, but also help the environment by physically improving the structure of soil and by improving the soil's aeration, porosity, and permeability. Their segmented body allows them to navigate through the soil efficiently. Their digestive system includes many parts that add their own unique function to the system. The diagram to the left is an example of an earthworm cladogram.

External Anatomy

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Internal Anatomy

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Dissection Fun!

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Digestive System

The digestive system of an earthworm is one of the most important parts of the worm. The organs that the digestive system consists of along with the functions of each organ are the:

Mouth- first part of the digestive system that takes in food

Pharynx- pumps food and soil into the esophaus

Esophagus- food that leads food to the crop

Crop- stores food

Gizzard-grinds food

Intestine- transports nutrients and soil through the digestive system

The Fascinating Movement of an Earthworm

Earthworm close-up

Perch

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Objectives

The objective to this virtual lab is to view and understand the organs that make up a perch. A specific organ will also be specifically and thoroughly described and many important facts are stated throughout the poster.

Background

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Genus: Perca

Species: Percidae

Habitat: Small ponds, lakes, streams, rivers

Predators: Larger fish, birds, herons, gulls, eagles, hawks, kingfishers, mergansers, turtles, bullfrogs

Prey: live insects, crustaceans, small fish, and various other small creatures

Ecological Adaptations: -large eyes to aid in feeding and giving the perch good vision

-spines for protection

-stiffness in fins, and a thin shortened disc-shaped body, making it harder for predators to swallow

-stripes for camouflage protection

The perch, of which there are three species in different geographical areas, are freshwater fish. The diagram to the left is an example of a perch cladogram.

External Anatomy

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Internal Anatomy

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Dissection Fun!

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Circulatory System

The circulatory system of a Yellow Perch is a low pressure, single loop system which means that there is one direction of blood flow from the heart that acts as a pump. Deoxygenated blood is pumped throughout the heart and goes to the gills which is where the blood becomes oxygenated. The blood then goes straight to the body. The organs that make up the circulatory system of a perch are the:


Heart- muscular organ helping blood to circulate

Atrium- upper chambers of the heart that receive the blood and turns it into the ventricles

Ventral Aorta- circulates the blood from the heart to the gills then on through the head and the body

Gills- organ that extracts oxygen from the water

Dorsal Aorta- carries blood from the heart to the organs

Jugular Vein- carries blood from head to face

Kidney- maintains the pressure of internal fluids

Ovary Reproductive System- an egg-producing organ

Stomach/Intestine- breaks down food by enzymes and makes it into a liquid mixture which empties into the small intestine.

Liver- all the blood goes through it and it is always processing food.

Fun Facts and Awesome Perch Dissection Video!

  • The three types of perch: Yellow, European, and Balkhash perch
  • Perch are destroying the ecosystem of the Nile River by consuming many other species and overpopulating the river.
  • Perch are in the secondary consumer trophic level
  • Perch are found in Britain, Europe, South Africa, Asia, and Australia.
Perch Dissection.wmv

Arthropods

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Objectives

The objectives are to thoroughly understand and interpret the structures and functions of grasshoppers and crayfish.

Grasshopper Background

Scientific Name: Caelifera

Phylum: Arthropoda

Order: Orthroptera

Habitat: dry open areas with lots of grass and other low plants

Predators: Birds, Lizards, Mantids, Spiders, Rodents

Prey: grasses, leaves, cereal crops

Ecological Adaptations: -specialized third limbs to jump up to one meter to avoid predation

Integumentary System of a Grasshopper

The integumentary system of a grasshopper protects its inner organs. It also makes it more difficult for predators to eat because it is hard.
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Crayfish Background

Scientific Name: Astacoidea

Subphylum: Crustacea

Kingdom: Animalia

Habitat: Marine Environments

Predators: fish, birds, alligators, humans, turtles

Prey: Dead insects, worms, algae types, dead fish, live small fish

Ecological Adaptations: -females store sperm until they're ready to lay eggs

-four legs for walking on land

Labeled Arthropod

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Respiratory System of Crayfish

Crayfish are aquatic and use gills to breathe under water. The gills are located under the carapace and are located on the outside of the body.

Facts Facts Facts!

  • The arthropod group has provided numerous numerous benefits to humans, although humans have shown an opposite effect. Us humans farm various arthropods for food (crabs, lobsters, shrimp.) We also compete with them for food, since they eat the crops that we grow for agriculture. However, some arthropods do gain from humans because they use us as their hosts (mosquitos, chiggers, fleas.)
  • Arthropods have been on Earth for 428 million years.
  • Arthropods are in the trophic level primary consumers.

Brief Crayfish Dissection