Montreal Protocol

One of the greatest environmental success stories to date.

A Reduction of Ozone Depletion

The Montreal Protocol is a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer developed in 1987. It is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.

Successes and Strengths

Today, all UN recognized nations have ratified the treaty and continue to phase out the production of chemicals that deplete the ozone layer while searching for ozone-friendly alternatives.

Failures and Weaknesses

U.S. costs associated with the Montreal Protocol’s efforts to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-damaging chemicals from 1987 through 2060 vary depending on which assumptions are used, but Environmental Protection Agency estimates that the final tab will range between $40 billion and $60 billion.

Many argue whether or not these costs were worth the benefit because the ozone hole is still quite large in size.


While the costs of the Montreal Protocol were extremely large, the benefits include health of humans and animals. The positive effects will show even more in years to come. This act should stand as an example to all other environmental legislation.