The Science of The Cell!

The Science Cell Unit!

Microscopes

The microscope is a very important and useful tool in the area of science and without it, their would not be very many discoveries that have benefitted mankind. If it was not for the microscopes many diseases like diabetes would not have been cured.

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant and animal cells look very different from one another. One of the main differences between an animal cell and a plant cell is that an animal cell has a cell membrane and an plant cell has a cell membrane + a cell wall. Another main different between plant and animal cells is that a plant cell has chloroplasts that are instrumental in the process photosynthesis.

Multicellular and Unicellular Organisms

Unicullular Organisms

Unicellular Organisms can only be seen through a microscope. This is why they are often called "micro-organisms" (very small). Most of these unicellular organisms get there energy by feeding on other organisms. Plant unicellular organisms make there own food by a process called photosynthesis. In order for these organisms to undergo photosynthesis they have to have structures called chloroplasts. An example of this would be Englena.

Multicellular Organisms

There are many parts to the multicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms cells divide and produce new cells. As the number of cell in a multicellular organism increases, the organism is higher functioning organism. In multicellular organisms, cells perform specific jobs, for example, in the human body there are specialized cells. There are heart cells, liver cells and lung cells. These cells work together to keep the human body healthy. The hydra is a multicellular organism that has several thousands cells where as another multicellular organism, like the mouse may have billions of cells.
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Extra Information and Facts

Many years ago, scientists made observations with their eyes. When the microscope was invented, scientists were able to see cells for the very first time. Because of these advancements, scientists came up with the cell theory. The cell theory states the following:

1. All living things are made up of one or more cells.

2. The cell is the basic unit of life.

3. All cells come from other living cells.


Plant and animal cells are different in some respects and the same in other respects. One main difference is that the plant cell has a cell wall and an animal cell has a cell membrane. Plant cells also have structures called chloroplasts which helps the plant cell in getting energy by photosynthesis.

In the leaf, fluid movement and gas exchange is controlled by structures called stomata. On either side of the stomata are structures called guard cells. These structures let in water and let out gas. When the weather is dry, the guard cells deflate and close off the opening keeping the leaf from becoming dry. When there is an abundance of water and water vapor in the air, the guard cells swell with water and create an opening where there is an exchange of water and gases.