Eisenhower

Madelyn Baker Pd 1

Elections

Election of 1952

  • Eisenhower (Republican) vs Stevenson (Democrat)
  • Eisenhower won with 442 electoral votes (Stevenson had 89)
  • Issues: Korean War, Communism
  • Vice Presidential candidate for Eisenhower: Richard M. Nixon
  • War hero
  • Nixon campaigned for them

Election of 1956

  • Eisenhower (Republican) vs Stevenson (Democrat)
  • Eisenhower won with 457 electoral votes (Stevenson had 73)
  • replay of 1952
  • Issues: Communism/USSR (McCarthy hearings, Hungary, Suez Canal), Brown Segregation Ruling
  • Eisenhower worked with labor reform

Cold War

Cold War: a state of hostility between nations; threats, propaganda, espionage, not just open warfare

  • rivalry after WWII between the Soviet Union and democratic countries of the Western World (under leadership of United States)



  • Warsaw Pact: 1955: Eastern European countries and USSR signed this, created a red military counterweight to NATO in the west
  • Suez Crisis: President Nassar of Egypt (Arab nationalist) wanted funds to build large dam on upper Nile for irrigation and power
  • --- America and Britain tentatively offered financial help
  • --- Nassar grew closer with communists, Secretary of State Dulles withdrew the dam offer
  • --- Nassar nationalized the Suez Canal (mainly owned by British and French stockholders)
  • --- his action was bad for Western Europe's oil supply
  • --- Dulles tried to stop European powers from pursuing armed intervention, Soviets threatened to match any Western invasion by sending people to Egypt and bombing Paris and London
  • --- French and Britain with Israel launched joint attack on Egypt in October 1956
  • --- US did not help out, didn't send oil to Europe
  • --- marked the end of US being an oil power
  • Sputnick: sent into space in 1957 by USSR, led to fear of missiles
  • Castro: came to power in Cuba, communist, would lead to conflict in later years

Joseph McCarthy

  • anti-communist crusader
  • came into power with accusation that many known communists worked in state department
  • February 1950 speech: said Secretary of State Dean Acheson knowingly employed 205 Communist party members (later found out it was only 57): HE GAINED VISIBILITY
  • accusations spread after Republican victory of 1952
  • most ruthless red hunter
  • "Low-Blow Joe"
  • ruined careers of countless officials, writers, and actors
  • most Americans approved of his crusade
  • Eisenhower disliked McCarthy but stayed out of his way
  • attacked US Army with accusations
  • --- military fought back, 35 days of televised hearings in Spring 1954
  • --- a few months later Senate condemned him for his behavior
  • --- three years later he died of alcoholism
  • McCarthyism led to mean unfairness

Desegregation in the South


  • shied away from using his power to educate white Americans about racial justice
  • grew up in all-white town, was in segregated army
  • had advised against integration of armed forces in 1948
  • criticized Truman's FEPC



Little Rock Crisis


  • September 1957
  • Orval Faubus (governor of Arkansas) mobilized National Guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling at Little Rock's Central High School
  • Eisenhower send troops to escort children to classes


Brown vs Board of Education


  • May 1954
  • Topeka, Kansas Board of Education
  • justices ruled that segregation in public schools was "inherently unequal," so it was unconstitutional
  • reversed 1896 Plessy vs Ferguson that it was okay to have "separate but equal" facilities
  • Border States made reasonable efforts
  • Deep South had a huge resistance
  • more than a hundred southern congressional representatives and senators signed "Declaration of Constitutional Principles:" 1956
  • --- pledged their resistance to desegregation
  • some states didn't take public funding so they could call their schools "private schools"
  • 10 years after ruling, less than 2% of blacks were in school with whites



Montgomery Bus Boycott


  • December 1955
  • Rosa Parks (college-educated black seamstress) sat on "whites only" section of bus
  • violated Jim Crow statutes of city, arrested
  • led to year-long black boycott of city buses
  • led to prominence of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • --- grew up in prosperous family, sheltered from most cruelties of segregation
  • --- oratorical skills, used principles of Gandhi



Civil Rights Act of 1957

  • first Civil Rights act since Reconstruction era
  • "the mildest civil rights bill possible"
  • set up permanent Civil Rights Commission: to investigate violations of civil rights and to protect voting rights

Republicanism Policies

  • Eisenhower's name for his balanced/moderate approach to domestic affairs
  • approved of helping aged and poor
  • still limited the power of central government
  • wanted to balance federal budget and guard America from socialism
  • supported transfer of control of offshore oil fields from federal government to states
  • 1945: Operation Wetback: sent around 1 million Mexicans back to Mexico
  • cancelled the "Indian New Deal" of 1934: Native American tribes were no longer legal entities, tried to revert to assimilationist goals
  • extended social security to 10 million more people
  • minimum wage was raised
  • more public housing was built
  • did not approve of federal health care insurance of federal aid to education
  • large arms build up and active foreign policy
  • public works projects
  • backed Interstate Highway Act of 1956: to build 42, 000 miles of roadways
  • only balanced budget three times
  • 1959: had biggest peacetime deficit so far in American history

Beginning of Vietnam War

  • Ho Chi Minh (Vietnamese leader) tried to get Woodrow Wilson in 1919 to support self-determination in Southeast Asia
  • nationalist movements throughout years to overthrow French colonial power in Indochina
  • Cold War: leaders (ex: Ho Chi Minh) became increasingly communist
  • by 1954: Americans were financing about 80% of costs of French colonial war
  • France's forces began crumbling under Viet Minh guerrilla pressure
  • March 1954: French garrison was trapped in fortress of Dienbienphu (NW corner of Vietnam); Dulles, Nixon, and chairman of the Join Chiefs of Staff favored intervention with American bombing
  • --- Eisenhower had fear of another war in Asia (after Korea), feared British nonsupport, decided not to
  • Dienbienphu fell to nationalists
  • multination conference at Geneva halved Vietnam at seventh parallel
  • Ho Chi Minh agreed, IF Vietnam-wide elections would be held in two years
  • elections were never held, communists were certain to win
  • Vietnam remained very divided
  • Eisenhower promised economic and military aid to autocratic Diem region if they made certain social reforms
  • --- change was slower, but American continued to aid them
  • communist guerillas grew in campaign against Diem
  • America was now entangled

Space Race

  • October 4, 1957: USSR launched "baby moon" (Sputnik I) and a month later sent a larger satellite (Sputnik II)
  • --- made America lose self-confidence
  • military implications: if heavy objects could be launched into space, the USSR could reach America with intercontinental ballistic missiles
  • Eisenhower said it shouldn't cause concern
  • Others (mostly Republicans) blamed Truman for not spending more on a missile program
  • "Rocket fever" across the nation
  • Eisenhower established National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  • --- directed billions of dollars to missile development
  • humiliated by Vanguard missile in 1957
  • February 1958: America launched a very small satellite in space
  • By end of decade, several satellites had been launched, US had successfully tested ICBMs
  • led to reform of education system: to replace old subjects with solid subjects