All the things you need to know about waves
How waves move
The winds cause waves on the surface of the ocean. The wind transfers some of its energy to the water, through friction between the air molecules and the water molecules. Stronger winds cause larger waves. If referring to differences in types of waves, their is only longitudinal and transverse waves in which the only difference is that longitudinal waves move in compressions (such as sound). Transverse waves move in a continuous up and down motion.The properties of waves are diffraction, refraction, constructive interference, destructive interference, and transfer of energy (this is what a wave is). Waves are known to affect your hearing.
How surfing works
Being able to surf has to do with Newton's law of motion. Newton's first law says that an object that is in motion stays in motion. Waves are an excellent example. And objects that are at rest stay at rest, just like a surfboard. That is exactly why a surfer has to paddle to catch a wave. According to Newton's third law, every action has an equal and opposite reaction. When a surfer pushes down one edge of the board, that edge pushes into the water, which pushes back up against the board. As a result, the surfboard starts to turn.