Unifying Italy and Germany

Important Terms


The act of being made whole

Young Italy/Germany

A movement in Italy during the 1800's, inspired by the French Revolution. People wanted liberty and equality.

Red Shirts

Nickname for the Red Army Giuseppe Garibaldi lead. The soliders in the army wore red shirts to identify each other.

A feeling of superiority over other countries. People began to unite under one nation rather than a seperate state. This lead people to unification.

The name given to emperors of Germany. Equal to Russian Tsars.

Unification of Italy

important Events

French Revolution

People saw the revolution and wanted a revised state for themselves. Sparked the countries to unify.

Austrian Revolution

After a failed revolution in Austria, people began to move to Piedmont(part of Italy) to help with unifying Italy.

French Alliance
Piedmont allied with France because they did not have enough force to fight the Austrians. With the help of the French they could now provoke Austria. People began to trust Camillo di Cavour.


Piedmont gave France Nice and Savory as a result in the alliance. Lombardy, which was owned by Austria, was given to Piedmont and Austria kept Venetia. This would pose a problem when Italy wanted to unify, Italians would want Venetia to be part of Italy, but it would be owned by Austria.

Sicilian Revolt

Revolt broke out in Sicily against the King, lead by the Red Army. By September 1860, Naples and the Two Sicilies fell to the Red Army. After, Piedmont was given Giuseppe's controlled lands.


March 17, 1861 the new state of Italy was proclaimed under King Emmanuel II. Venetia and Rome were not controlled by Italy, unification was not completed.

Final Unification

The new Italy allied with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian war, when Prussia won Italy was given Venetia. France withdrew troops from Rome during the Franco-Prussian war. Italy was able to annex Rome. Italy now had the territory to complete their unification.

Important People

Camillo di Cavour

Prime Minister of Piedmont in 1852. Aided in raising government revenues. Made an alliance with France to provoke a war with Austria. His success caused nationalism in Parma, Modena, and Tuscany, the people wanted to join the unification of Italy.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Giuseppe Garibaldi lead the revolution to unify Italy. He organized an army named the Red Shirts to take over government.

King Emmanuel II

King of Italy until March, 17 1861. He was the one Red Shirts wanted to overthrow.

Unification of Germany

Important Events

Frankfurt Assembly

German unification failed at the Frankfurt Assembly in 1848 and 1849. Germany looked to Prussia for help.

War with Prussia
After allying with Austria and defeating Denmark in 1864, Prussia claimed the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Then Bismarck went against Austria and defeated them on July 3 1866.

North and South

The North German states became the North German Confederation. Southern states feared Prussia because they were Catholic while Prussia was protestant. The Southern States agreed to sign a military alliance with Prussia to protect themselves from France. South slowly began trusting Prussia and the North.

War with France

Prussia tricked France into war, became the Franco-Prussian war. Southern German states honored their alliance and joined Prussia against France. France surrendered on January 28, 1871. France signed a peace treaty, which included giving Prussia 5 billion Francs(1 billion dollars in todays money) Alsace and Lorraine. Southern Germany trusted Prussia now.

Final Unification

Before the Franco-Prussian war had ended the Southern States agreed to unify. William I of Prussia was claimed Kaiser. The new state has a strong military and industrial resources, unification had been complete.

Important People

King William I

Leader of Prussia the 1860s. Appointed Otto von Bismark as Prime Minister. Helped to biuld the army.

Otto von Bismarck

Prime Minister of Prussia. Lead the government without consent from Parliament. Collected taxes between 1862 and 1866 and built the army. He lead Germany to war which lead to unification.


During the 1800s the French Revolution sparked the idea of unification. Along with nationalism people began to want a unified state. People wanted to be part of a whole rather than a separate state. The Red Shirts, lead by Giuseppe Garibaldi, took over Italy in 1860 and Italy was deemed a separate state in 1891.The smaller, northern Germanic states joined together in the North German Confederation. The southern states joined after the Franco-Prussian war.